Chapter 18

  1. The process of permanently altering the natural wave pattern of hair is described as:
    Chemical Texture Services
  2. The tough exterior layer of the hair structure is called the:
  3. To change the natural wave pattern of hair, the side bond of what layer of hair must be broken?
  4. Another term that is used to describe the medulla of the hair structure is the:
  5. The term used to measure the hydrogen ions in a solution that determine its alkalinity or acidity is:
    potential hydrogen
  6. The range of numbers used in the pH scale is:
  7. Chemical hair texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair in order to:
    soften and swell the shaft
  8. In the restructuring process, coarse, resistant hair with a strong compact cuticle requires a chemical solution that is:
    highly alkaline
  9. Chains that are formed by peptide bonds that are linked together are:
  10. A correct permanent wave service alters only what bonds?
    side bonds
  11. The building blocks of proteins are:
    amino acids
  12. Chemical-based side bonds that are formed when two sulfur-type chains are joined together are:
    disulfide bonds
  13. Hydrogen bonds are easily broken by water or hear and are re-formed when the hair is:
  14. Chemical services should not be performed if the scalp analysis shows any signs of:
  15. The key to ensuring complete penetration of permanent wave solution on coarse hair is:
    saturation of the cortex
  16. More then any other single factor, what determines the ability of the hair to hold a curl?
  17. In permanent waving, the shape and type of curl are determined by the shape and type of rod and the:
    wrapping method
  18. The wrapping technique that provides the most control over hair ends and keeps them evenly distributed over the entire length of the rods is a:
    double flat wrap
  19. The wrap that is used on endpaper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope is a:
    bookend wrap
  20. All perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into:
  21. Rods that are equel in circumference aking their entire length or curling area are:
    straight rods
  22. In permanent waving, panels of hair are divided into smaller subsections called:
    base rods
  23. The angle at which a permanent wave rod is positioned on the head is referred to as:
    base direction
  24. Caution should be used with on-base rod placement to avoid additional:
    stress and tension on hair
  25. The two meathods of wrapping the hair around a perm rod are:
    croquignole and spiral
  26. In the croquignole method of wrapping, the hair is wound from:
    scalp to ends
  27. The most common reducting agents used are:
    hydrogen peroxide
  28. The main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanent waves is:
    ammonium thioglycolate
  29. Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between:
    4.4 & 5.5
  30. Exothermic waves create a chemical reaction that heats the solution and speeds up:
  31. An acid with a low pH that is the primary reducing agent in acid waves is:
    sodium hydroxide
  32. Most acid waves have a pH value between:
    7.8 and 8.2
  33. The most common reducing agents used in thio-free waves are mercaptamine or:
  34. Hair that has too many disulfide bonds broken and will not hold a firm curl is considered:
  35. Two important functions performed during the neutralization process are:
    activates solution and normalizes hair
  36. Before applying a neutralizer to the hair, it should be thoroughlt:
  37. The bands of permanent wave rods should be smooth and fastened:
    straight across the top of the rod
  38. The process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straighter or smoother form is:
    chemical hair relaxing
  39. The neutralizer used in thio relaxers is an oxidizing agent, usually:
    hydrogen peroxide
  40. Hydroxide relaxers remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond, converting it into a:
    lanthionine bond
  41. Unlike thio neutralization, the neutralization process of hydroxide relaxers does not involve:
  42. The application of a sodium hydroxide relaxer causes the hair to:
    swell and soften
  43. Relaxers that contain only one component and are used without mixing are:
    neutralizing relaxers
  44. Hydroxide relaxers that do not require the application of a protective base are:
    no-base relaxers
  45. To avoid over processing tand scalp irritation in a virgin relaxer application, start at least:
    1/2 inch away from the scalp
  46. Conditioners with an acidic pH that condition and restore the natural pH of hair after a relaxer but prior to shampooing are:
    normalizing solutions
  47. The application for chemical relaxers should be started in the most resistant area, usually the:
    back of head
  48. Prior to sodium hydroxide relaxer retouch service, the hair should never be:
  49. During a retouch relaxer application, to avoid over processing ot hair breakage, do not:
    overlap the relaxer
  50. Hair that is treated with hydroxide relaxers must not be treated with:
    thio relaxers
  51. Chains that are formed by peptide bonds that are linked together are:
  52. Hair coloring products that contain metallic salts are not compatible with:
    permanent waving
  53. Chemical services performed on overly porous hair requires solutions that are:
  54. In permanent waving, the size of the curl us determined by the:
    rod size
  55. Permanent wave rods that produce a tighter curl in the center and looser curls on either size of the strand are:
    concave rods
  56. Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called
  57. In permanent waving, the reduction reaction is due to the addition of:
  58. The most common reducing agents used are:
    thioglycolic acids
  59. All acid waves have three components consisting of the waving lotion, neutralizer and:
Card Set
Chapter 18
Chemical Texture