A&P II-Respiratory

  1. Respiration-
    • Gas exchange between the cells of the body & the atmosphere.
    • -Involves breathing, gas exchange, gas utilization (cellular respiration)
  2. A. Organs of the System
    • -Upper respiratory tract- outside the thorax
    • -Lower respiratory tract- within the thorax
  3. 1. Nose-

    A. Nostrils:
    B. Nasal Septum:
    • A. Openings to the respiratory system. Guarded by hairs to block large foreign particles.
    • B. divides nostrils
  4. 2. Nasal Cavity-
    • -Hollow space behind the nose.
    • -Is separated from the cranial cavity by ethmoid bone & hard palette
  5. Nasal Conchae
    • -bony projections that divide the cavity into 3 passages:
    • 1. Superior Meatus
    • 2. Middle Meatus
    • 3. Inferior Meatus
  6. 1. Superior Meatus
    support mucous membranes & contain olfactory receptors.
  7. 2. Middle Meatus
    support mucous membranes & is an air passage.
  8. 3. Inferior Meatus
    support mucous membranes & is an air passage
  9. Mucous Membranes
    pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with a high concentration of goblet cells & blood vessels.
  10. Mucous membranes
    • 1. Mucous moistens & traps airborne particles
    • 2. Blood vessels warm air
    • 3. Cilia move foreign particles to digestive tract
  11. Sinuses
    air filled spaces within the skull with a mucous membrane that is continuous with the nasal cavity. Function to lighten the skull & resonate (voice)
  12. Pharynx
    air passage, speech
  13. Larynx (voice box)
    • 1. Houses vocal chords
    • 2. Prevents entry of foregin objects into the trachea
  14. Structure
    • 1. Thyroid Cartilage- Adam's Apple, caused by male hormones.
    • 2. Cricoid cartilage
    • 3. Epiglottic cartilage- epiglottis- flap that closes during the swallowing to prevent entry of food/water into the trachea.
    • 4. Arytenoid cartilage
    • 5. Corniculae cartilages- site of muscle attachement
    • 6.
  15. Vocal Chords
    1. False vocal chords
    2. True vocal chords
    • 1. False vocal cords- close larynx during swallowing.
    • 2. True vocal cords- muscular folds in the mucous membrane that vibrate laterally when air is forced between them.
  16. Words
    formed by shapin sound with muscles in pharynx, tongue & lips
  17. Pitch
    related to tension of vocal chords
  18. Intensity
    force of air across vocal chords
  19. Trachea (windpipe)
    flexible tuve in fron of the esophagus that extends into the thorax where it splits into the right and left bronchi
  20. Structure-
    1. C-shaped bands of hyaline cartilage separated by smooth muscle & connective tissue
  21. Structure (con'td)
    2. Tracheal wall- ciliated mucous membrane with a high concentration of goblet cells.
  22. Bronchial Tree
    branched air passages from the trachea to the alveoli
  23. a. primary bronchi
    Right & Left into each lung
  24. b. secondary bronchi
    c. tertiary bronchi-
    d. bronchioles-
    e. terminal-
    • b. ----
    • c. segmental. Each supports a bronchopulmonary segment.
    • d. segments to lobules
    • e. branches from bronchioles (50-80/ lobule)
  25. Respiratory bronchioles-
    respiration begins here. this is the 1st branch where gas exchange happens. 2 or more from each terminal
  26. Alveolar ducts-
    2-10 from each respiratory bronchiole
  27. Alveolar sacs-
    thin-walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts
  28. Alvoeli
    respiration ends here. thin-walled air sacs open to the alveolar sacs.
Card Set
A&P II-Respiratory
Respiratory System Notes