biology 111

  1. Hypothesis
    an educated guess based on available information
  2. Null hypothesis
    the opposite of the hypothesis
  3. Theory
    a hypothesis with a large body of evidence to support it
  4. Law
    a well-tested theory that has become an immutable fact
  5. What are experiments designed to do?
    to determine if the null hypothesis can be refuted
  6. Variable
    a condition that exists in more than one possible state, e.g. temperature,pH, exposure to sunlight etc.
  7. Dependent
    variables that must be held constant in an experiment
  8. independent
    variables that are allowed to fluctuate, the independent variable is the subject of the experiment only one thing.
  9. control group
    a portion of the experiment that does not receive a treatment, this shows a baseline for comparison with the portion of the group that receives the treatment
  10. placebo
    a sugar pill used in drug treals, an individual in the trial will be unaware if they are receiving the treatment or a placebo to eliminate psychosomatic vareables
  11. placebo effect
    some test subjects will respond to a placebo because they are told it is an actual treatment
  12. double-blind study
    the experimenter(s) do not know whether an individual subject is getting the treatment ora placebo unti9l the study is complete, this eliminates experimenter bieas as a variable.
  13. 8 characteristics of life on earth
    • 1.cellular
    • 2.Dna based
    • 3. Reproduction
    • 4. Growth
    • 5. Metabolism=use of energy
    • 6.Homeostasis=maintaining a steady state
    • 7. Evolution=adapt to environment
    • 8. Carbom/water based=organic molecules
  14. atomic number
    the number of protons
  15. atomic mass
    the number of protoms and neutrons
  16. isotopes
    atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
  17. ionic
    one atom takes an electron from another atom to create an elctrical attraction
  18. covalent
    two atoms share electrons to create a bond
  19. cohesion
    water molecules "stick" to each other
  20. adhesion
    water molecules form hydrogen bonds with other molecules
  21. acids
    chemicals that cause the pH of water to decrease
  22. bases
    chemicals that cause the pH of water to increase
  23. Buffers
    solutions that have chemicals in them that resist changes in pH
  24. examples of oganic elements
    C H N O P & S
  25. Biomolecules
    Carbohydrates, proteins, Nucleic acids,Lipids
  26. monosaccharide
    single sugar molecule
  27. Disaccharide
    two linked sugar molecules
  28. oligosaccharide
    a small chain (3-100) of sugar molecules
  29. polysaccharide
    a long chain of sugar molecules, e.g. starch,glycogen,cellulose
  30. carbohydrate functions
    energy storage, structural, in plant and bacteria cell walls
  31. Dipeptide
    two linked amino acids
  32. proteins are polymers of amino acids
  33. polypeptide
    a chain of amino acids
  34. Primary
    the sequence of amino acids
  35. Secondary
    localized structure comsisting elements such as the alpha- helix and beta-pleated sheet
  36. tertiary
    the three dimensional structure of a single polypeptide
  37. quaternary
    the total proteirn shape that inludes multiple polypeptides
  38. Energy
    the capacity o do work
  39. potential energy
    energy of position
  40. kinectic energy
    energy of motion
  41. Thermodynamics Law 1
    energy can neither be created nor destoryed it can only change forms
  42. thermodynamics law 2
    anytime energy changes form some energy is lost as heat
  43. metabolism
    the sum total of all chmial reaction in a cell or organism
  44. endergonic
    the reaction requires an input of energy
  45. exergonic
    the reaction releases energy
  46. chemical equilibrium
    some chemical reations move in both the forward and reverse directions
  47. active site
    this is the part of the encyme where the chemical reaction occurs.
  48. enzymes
    are proteins that have large complicated structuresEncymes grab the reactants and position them so that they will react to form products. After the product are formed the enzyme releases them the suffix- ase
  49. substrates
    reactants in the enzyme ataized reaction
  50. Activation energy
    • energy that must be added to a reation to get it started this applies to exergonic reactions as well as endergonic
    • enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, this makes the reaction go faster however it does not effect the equilibrium
  51. cofactors
    non-protein chmicas found in the active site that faciitate function
  52. NEGATIVE feedback
    the end product of a series of reactions inhibits the first enzyme in the series
  53. pOSITIVE feedback
    the end product of a series of reactions activates an enzyme in the series
  54. new chapter 8 & 9
  55. cell cycle phases
    Phases a cell undergoes cell division and replication of DNA
  56. G1 first phase
    The first growth phase is when the cell carries on anabolism to prepare the cell for synthesis and subsequesnt division.
  57. G0 phase
    if a cell does not need to divide it stops early in the G1 phase to enter G0 where it will not divide.
  58. S phase
    the synthesis phase is when the cell replicates in DNA
  59. G2 second growth phase of cell
    during the second growth phases the cell prepares for division by condensing the DNA and assembling the proteirns need for diviosn.
  60. Mitosis
    the separating of the two identical copies of DNA
  61. cytokinesis
    the physical separation of a single parent cell into two daughter cells.
  62. Synthesis Phase
    In order for the cell to divide it must duplicate in DNA in a process called replication,it is important to know that double stranded DNAe is anti-parallel
  63. How do enzymes help in the Replication of DNA?
    Denzymes carry our replication of DNA in a specific sequences.
  64. Mitosis is a four step process
    1. Prophase

    2. Metaphase


  65. DNA Helicase
    opens up the double helix by breaking the hydogen bonds
  66. single stranded binding proteins
    bind to the single stranded DNA to prevent it from reforming the double helix
  67. RNA Primase
    adds a short sequence of RNA to begin the duplication process
  68. DNA Polymerase
    synthesis the DNA polymer from free nucleotides, the nucleotides that are added must pair with the existing strand according to chargraff's rule. DNA can only wrk in 3 to 5 direction
  69. DNA ligase
    seals breaks in the sugar phoshate back bone
  70. leading strand
    The strand of DNA that is synthezied continually
  71. lagging strand
    the other strand which is synthesized in fragments called Okazaki
  72. Histones
    1. DNA condenses in prep of cell division

    DNA wrapped around proteins called histones.
  73. Chromatin
    is the genetic term for all of the cells DNA and associated proteins.
  74. Chromosomes
    before cell division each of the individual segments of DNA condenses into these.
  75. Chromatids
    After DNA duplicates there are now two identical segments chomatids "sister".
  76. centromere
    The identical chromatids are attached to each other by a DNA protein complex.
  77. Prophase(mitosis)
    Chromosomes condense
  78. Miotic Spindle
    a specialized cytoskeleton structure that separates the chromatids begins to form(during prohase.
  79. Mataphase
    the membrane around the nucleus breaks down.

    the miotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at proteins on the centromeres called kinetochores.
  80. Anaphase
    the miotic spindle pulls apart the chromatids, this breaks the centromeres

    the chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell .
  81. Telophase
    The nuclear membrane reforms

    the chromosomes decondense

    the miotic spindle breaks down
  82. Mitosis is followed by what?
    Cytokinesis the physical separation of the parent cell into two daughter cells This occurs because the cell membrane contracts at the equator until the two new cells are formed.
Card Set
biology 111
unit 1