
Titration
the controlled addition of a base (or acid) to an acid (or base)

Titrant
solution that is added from the "buret"

Equivalence Point
"stoichiometrically equivalent" amounts of reactants have reacted (balanced chemical reaction)
*One Theoretical Point on a titration curve and can be calculated.
*Exact center of the vertical part of a titration curve.

Endpoint
signals that the equivalence point has been reached, usually by a sudden color change
The endpoint is an entire pH range.

Indicator
a substance added to the titration to "indicate" the endpoint by a color change

Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration (formula)
M_{a}V_{a}=M_{b}V_{b}

Strong Acids
HCl, H_{2}SO_{4}, HBr, HI, HNO_{3}, HClO_{4}

Stong Bases
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)_{2}, Sr(OH)_{2}, Ba(OH)_{2}

hydrolysis
the reaction of a weak acid or a weak base with water.

midpoint
half of the volume necessary to reach the equivalence point.
pH= pKa at midpoint (with weak acids/bases only!)

chemical kinetics
tells us how long a reaction will go

reaction rate
how fast the products appear or reactants disappear (always +)

instantaneous rate
the rate that exists at a particular time t (calculated as the slope of the tangent to the curve at time t)

initial rate
the instantaneous rate at t=0 (calculated as the slope of the tangent to the curve at t=0)

average rate
the average reaction rate that exists over a time period, change of t (calculated as the slope of the hypotenuse of the right triangles)

