1. how can you prevent ca oxalate stone
    • increase fluids
    • alkalinize urine
    • oxalate restriction
  2. what are two drugs to prevent cysteine stones
    • penicillamine
    • tiopronin
  3. size of kidney stone unlikely to pass
    > 6mm
  4. 1st test if you suspect testicular ca
  5. labs for testicular cancer
    • LDH
    • AFP
    • B-HCG
  6. MC testicular tumor
  7. all stages of seminomas get
    • orchiectomy + XRT
    • remember if + retroperitoneal nodes extend field to mediastinum
  8. what pts with seminomas get chemo
    systemic mets or bulky nodes
  9. chemo for seminomas
    • cisplatin
    • bleomycin
    • etoposide
  10. types of non seminoma germ cell tumors
    • teratoma
    • choriocarcinoma
    • yolk sac
    • embryonal
  11. how do non seminoma germ cell tumors spready
    • hematogenously to lung
    • retroperitoneal LNs
  12. tx of non seminoma germ cell tumors
    • orchiectomy
    • stage II or greater - prophy retroperitoneal LND and chemo
  13. who should be offered prostate screenin
    >50 or >45 high risk who have a > 10 yr life expectancy
  14. dx prostate ca
    TRUS with bx
  15. mc site of prostate ca
    post lobe
  16. what stage is surgery offered for prostate ca
    stage I or II
  17. tx for stage III and IV prostate ca
    xrt and androgen ablation
  18. MC kidney tumor
    mets from breas CA
  19. classic triad of renal cell ca
    • abdominal pain
    • mass
    • hematuria
  20. syndrome associated with increased LFTs with renal cell Ca
    staffer syndrome
  21. paraneoplastic syndromes with RCC
    • erythrocytosis
    • HTN
    • Stauffer
    • PTHrp
    • ACTH
    • insulin
  22. vHL syndrome consists of
    • multiple/recurrent RCC
    • renal cyst
    • cns tumors
    • pheos
  23. tx for RCC besides surgery
    • doxorubicin INF IL-2
    • Sunitinib for mets/unresectable dz
  24. dx bladder ca
    • ua cytology
    • cystoscopy
  25. tx of T1 bladder ca
    intravesical BCG or transurethral rsxn
  26. tx t2 or greater bladder ca
    • cystectomy + Bilateral pelvic LND
    • and chemo XRT
    • in addition men need prostatectomy
    • women need TAH + BSO
  27. ileal conduit is associated with what acid/base disturbance
    hyperchloremic met acidosis
  28. what spinal cord level is the transition from spastic bladder to flaccid
  29. what medication can help stress incontinence
    alpha adrenergic agents
  30. in pts with varicocele their fertility is increased with
    high spermatic vein ligation
  31. varicocele is found where in the scrotum
    posterior portion
  32. what should you suspect in new onset hydrocele
    testicular ca
  33. ureterocele is most commonly found where
    junction of ureter and bladder
  34. uterocele is most commonly associated with
    ureteral duplication
  35. when do you repair hypospadias
    6 mo
  36. u/s characteristics of epididymitis
    increased blood flow to scrotum
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