Biology Vocab

  1. Crossing Over
    The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
  2. Diploid Cells
    A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
  3. Haploid Cells
    A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
  4. Meiosis
    A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chomosome number of the original cell.
  5. Mitosis
    Nuclear division proess; prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  6. Mitotic Phase
    Phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
  7. Nucleus
    Chromatin, nucleolus, nuclear envelope.
  8. Parthenogensis
    Is a form of asexual reproduction found in females, where growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization by a male.
  9. Sister Chromatids
    Replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II.
  10. Somatic Cell
    Any cell in a multicelluar organism except a sperm or egg cell.
  11. Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
    A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of the chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
  12. DNA
    A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
  13. Genes
    A discrete unit of heriditary information consisting of a specific necleotide sequence in DNA(or RNA, in some viruses).
  14. Genetics
    The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
  15. Heterozygous
    Haveing two different alleles for a given genetic character.
  16. Homozygous
    Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
  17. Phenotype
    The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
  18. Punnet Square
    A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
  19. Recessive Allele
    In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype.
  20. Aerobic
    Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, enviroment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
  21. Anaerobic
    Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, enviroment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
  22. ATP
    An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy to be used by the cell.
  23. Cell Wall
    A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers inbedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix.
  24. Central Vacuole
    A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
  25. Chlorophyll
    A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants.
  26. Chloroplasts
    An organelle fond only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
  27. Domains
    A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
  28. Heterotrophs
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
  29. Hydrophobis
    Having an affinity to water.
  30. 1st Law of Thermodynamics
    The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
  31. Abiotic Factor
    A non-living part of an ecosystem. Ex: water, sunlight, climate
  32. Biosphere
    The biosphere is the part of the earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs.
  33. Biotic Factor
    A living part of an ecosystem. Ex: Plants, animals(birds), insects(worms).
  34. Competition
    Organisms compete for the limited number of biotic and abiotic factors.
  35. Ecology
    The study of how living things interact with each other and their enviroment.
  36. Population
    Organisms of one species living together in the same place at the same time.
  37. Symbiosis
    A close relationship between two organisms in which at least one of the organsims benefits.
  38. Carbohydrates
    A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
  39. Endergonic Reaction
    A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
  40. Exergonic Reaction
    A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
  41. Fatty Acid
    A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds.
  42. Nucleic Acid
    A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, throught the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
  43. Prokaryotic Cell
    A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
  44. Protein
    A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
  45. Substrate
    The reactant on which an enzyme works.
Card Set
Biology Vocab
Vocabulary cards for the Homeschool Academy at the Memphis Zoo.