How much potable water do buildings consume in the United States?
How much waste output do buildings have in the United States?
How much CO2 emissions are buildings responsible for in the US?
How much of the raw materials in the US are used for buildings?
How much of the electricity used in the US is for buildings?
When was the USGBC founded?
How many versions of LEED have been launched?
Five (5): V1.0, V2.0, V.2.1, V.2.2, V3.0 (the most recent one for new construction and major renovations)
Which are the LEED AP Specialties?
- Existing Buildings Operations and Maintenance (EB+OM)
- Homes (H)
- Building Design and Construction (BD+C)
- Interior Design and Construction (ID+C)
- Neighborhood Development (ND)
Which are the different rating systems (they have different scorecards)?
- New Construction (NC)
- Core and Shell (CS)
- Commercial Interiors (CI)
- Schools (S)
- Existing Buildings Operations & Maintenance (EB)
- Homes (H)
- Neighborhood Development (ND)
Which residential buildings can apply to use the LEED NC rating system?
The ones that have 4 or more floors.
Which major renovations are covered by LEED NC?
- The ones that involve:
- 50% or MORE occupants displaced;
- HVAC renovation;
- significant envelope modifications; and
- major interior remodels.
What percentage of the building's leasable SQFT must be occupied by owner or tenant in LEED NC?
More than 50%
Do individual tenant spaces apply for LEED EB?
How long must a building be occupied to be eligible for LEED EB?
What is the maximum amount of floor area or occupants affected for a building to be eligible for LEED EB?
No more than 50% of floor area, nor more than 50% of the occupants can be affected, otherwise, it is a LEED NC project.
Which elements of a building are included in the LEED Core and Shell (CS)?
- Building Systems (HVAC)
How much of the leasable square footage can be occupied by owner for the project to be eligible for LEED CS?
Less than 50%.
What are the 4 areas of focus of the LEED CI?
- High performance interiors;
- Healthier choices;
- Lower operational costs; and
- Reduced environmental footprint.
Tenants who lease a space but do not occupy the entire building should use which rating system?
Which school years are covered by the LEED for Schools?
Which are the areas targeted by LEED for Healthcare?
- Higher sensitivity to chemicals and pollutants inside building;
- Distance from parking to facility; and
- Access to nature and natural spaces.
Which facilities are covered by LEED for Healthcare?
- Inpatient care facilities;
- licensed outpatient facilities;
- licensed long term care facilities;
- medical offices;
- assisted living facilities; and
- medical education and research buildings.
When is LEED for Retail used?
When there is a freestanding retail building or outlet
What is the maximum number of stories covered by LEED for Homes? (H)
No larger than 3 stories.
What is meant by a building's "carbon footprint"?
The total greenhouse gas emissions connected with the construction, building materials, and operation of the building.
What is included in the building's carbon footprint calculation?
- Energy use by building systems;
- Transportation to and from the building;
- Embodied emissions of water (what it takes to extract, convey, treat, and deliver it);
- Embodied emissions of solid waste; and
- Embodied emissions of material (what it takes to manufacture and transport it).
What does the Life-Cycle Assesment (LCA) consist of?
A comparison of energy use over time, of several options.
What are the 6 major credit categories of the LEED NC rating system?
- Sustainable Sites (SS)
- Water Efficiency (WE)
- Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
- Materials and Resources (MR)
- Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ)
- Innovation in Design (ID)
- Regional Priorities (RP)
What additional 2 credit categories are covered by the LEED for Homes?
- Location and Linkages; and
- Awareness and Education.
What are the 3 credit categories of the LEED ND?
- Smart Location and Linkage;
- Neighborhood Pattern and Design;
- Green Infrastructure and Buildings.
How many points are awarded for Prerequisites?
None. They are required to receive certification, but not counted as points.
What are the different levels of certification for LEED NC and their points?
- Certified: 40-49
- Silver: 50-59
- Gold: 60-79
- Platinum: 80-110
- [Remember 40,50,60,80]
What does CIR stand for and what does it consist of?
Credit Interpretation Rulings.
Like and RFI to the USGBC if you're stuck. An online database of queries to the GBCI about issues not specifically covered elsewhere.
Which are the 2 available certification paths?
- One Phase: Only at the end of the job.
- Two Phase: Design phase AND end of job.
What is the cost of a CIR?
What are the 3 reviews possible for LEED certification?
- Preliminary Review or Design Review;
- Final Review; and
- Appeal Review
How long after the first submission of the paperwork does the GBCI have to provide a Preliminary Review?
What is included in the Preliminary Review by the GBCI?
- Credit achievement anticipated or earned;
- request for clarifications; and
- credits denied.
How long does the project team have to provide corrections and clarifications back to the GBCI after the Preliminary Review?
How long after the project team resumbitted paperwork with clarifications, etc. does the GBCI have to provide a final rating?
15 business days
How long does the project team have to accept/appeal the results of the Final Review?
25 business days
How much do the appeals cost, per credit? And how many credits/prerequisites can be audited?
$500, and 6 credits max.
Which projects get refunded the certification fee?
The LEED Platinum projects
How much does the expedited review cost, and how long does it take? When is it used?
It costs $10,000, and 41 business days (versus about 3 months)
This is used for hard opening dates where time is of the essence.
What are the 5 steps of certification for LEED for Homes?
- Early planning;
- Verification and certification; and
- Reflection on achievements.
What are the 3 steps of certification for LEED for ND?
- Review prior to completion of the entitlement (permitting) process;
- certification of approved development plan; and
- review of a completed ND
What does MPR stand for?
Minimum Program Requirements
THE MPRs apply to which 5 LEED rating systems apply only?
- LEED-NC 2009;
- LEED-CS 2009;
- LEED-Schools 2009;
- LEED-CI 2009;
- LEED-EB 2009.
What are the 7 MPRs?
- Compliance with environmental laws;
- Complete, permanent building or space;
- Reasonable site boundaries;
- Minimum floor area requirements;
- Minimum occupancy rates;
- Sharing of whole-building energy and water usage data;
- Minimum building area-to-site area ratio
Whan can construction prerequisites and credits be submitted for review?
After substantial completion of construction has occurred.
What is the minimum floor area requirements for NC, CS, S, and EB projects?
1,000 SF of gross floor area
What is the minimum floor area requirements for CI projects?
What is the minimum occupancy rate required by the MPRs?
- 1 or more full time equivalent (FTE) occupant.
- (1 person, 8hrs/day, 5 day/wk, or equivalent)
What are the 3 possible compliance methods for energy and water usage reporting?
- Recertification on a 2 year cycle using LEED EB;
- Provide ongoing energy and water data annually; and
- Authorization to the USGBC to access data directly from utility company
How many CIRs are allowed per credit?
Only one (1).
Can a CIR for one project be used for another project?
No, they are project-specific (if submitted before June 26, 2009).
What is the Triple Bottom Line or "3 legged stool"?
- Economic Prosperity;
- Social Responsibility;
- Environmental Stewardship
Which are the Prerequisites and credits associated with SS?
- 1 Prerequisite + 8 Credits
- Prereq 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention
- Credit 1: Site Selection
- Credit 2: Development Density and Community Connectivity
- Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment
- Credit 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4: Alternative Transportation
- Credit 5.1 and 5.2: Site Development
- Credit 6.1 and 6.2: Stormwater Design
- Credit 7.1 and 7.2: Heat Island Effect
- Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction
What is the intent of the SS Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention?
Reduce pollution from construction activities by controlling:
- soil erosion;
- waterway sedimentation;
- airborn dust generation.
What are examples of strategies for SS Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention?
- earth dikes
- silt fencing
- sediment traps
What is the intent of the SS Prerequisite 2: Environmental Site Assessment?
- Ensure that the site is assessed for environmental contamination
- If contaminated, remediated to protect children's health
What are examples of strategies for SS Prerequisite 2: Environmental Site Assessment?
- Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment (no physical tests)
- Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessment (physical test)
What is the intent of the SS Credit 1: Site Selection?
- Avoid development of innapropriate sites; and
- reduce the environmental impact from the location of a building on a site.
Where can we NOT develop if we attempt to receive SS Credit 1: Site Selection?
- Anything below the 5 ft FEMA 100yr flood line (floodplain);
- Habitats for endangered species;
- Within 100 ft of wetland;
- Within 50 ft of water body;
- Former public parkland
What is the intent of the SS Credit 2: Development Density & Community Connectivity?
- "Not to build on virgin/green land"
- Channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructure, protect greenfields and preserve habitat and natural resources.
To obtain SS Credit 2: Development Density & Community Connectivity, what kind of area must we develop in?
- Highly dense;
- Near 10 basic services; and
- 1/2 mile pedestrian access between building and services
What is the intent of the SS Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment?
To rehabilitate damaged/contaminated sites to avoid using virgin land
What is the intent of SS Credits 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 : Alternative Transportation?
Reduce pollution and land development impacts resulting from automobile use.
What is required to obtain the obtain SS Credit 4.1: Alternative Transportation (Public Transportation Access)?
- Project must be within 1/2 mile of rail or subway; and
- within 1/4 mile of bus lines
- --if school, show that students can walk to school--
What is required to obtain the obtain SS Credit 4.2: Alternative Transportation (Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms)?
- Secure bike racks & shower facilities (commercial bldgs)
- Covered bike racks (residential bldgs)
- NOTE: This doesn't require toilets, and may use neighbor building facilities.
What is required to obtain the obtain SS Credit 4.3: Alternative Transportation (Low-Emission & Fuel-Efficient Vehicles)?
- Preferred parking for low-emitting/fuel-efficient vehicles;
- Alternative fuel stations;
- Access to ride share/carpooling programs;
- Low-emitting vehicles for employees (corporate float)
What is required to obtain the obtain SS Credit 4.4: Alternative Transportation (Parking Capacity)?
- Provide only the amount of parking spaces required by code;
- Do not add any new parking;
- Encourage shared vehicle and support programs.
What is the intent of SS Credit 5.1: Site Development (Protect or Restore Habitat)?
- "Keep green where it is, and add green where there isn't"
- Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity.
What is required to obtain the SS Credit 5.1: Site Development (Protect or Restore Habitat)?
- Limite site disturbance on greenfields;
- protect or restore previously developed sites (like green roofs)
What are examples of strategies for SS Credit 5.1: Site Development (Protect or Restore Habitat)?
- Adopt a master plan;
- minimize building footprint;
- select native or adapted plants;
- minimize site disruption during construction;
- green roofs
What is the intent of SS Credit 5.2: Site Development (Maximize Open Space)?
Provide a high ratio of open space to development footprint to promote biodiversity.
What is the intent of SS Credit 6.1: Stormwater Design (Quantity Control)?
- "Collect as much rainwater as possible"
- Limit disruption of natural hydrology by
- reducing impervious cover;
- increasing on-site infiltration;
- managing stormwater runoff
What is required to obtain SS Credit 6.1 Stormwater Design (Quantity Control)?
- Do not exceed pre-development stormwater runoff on green space; and
- Decrease in stormwater runoff for hardscape
What are examples of strategies for SS Credit 6.1: Stormwater Design (Quantity Control)?
- Maintain natural stormwater flows (infiltration);
- minimize impervious surfaces; and
- reuse stormwater for non-potable uses
What is the intent of SS Credit 6.2: Stormwater Design: Quality Control?
- Reduce or eliminate water pollution by
- eliminating sources of contaminants; and
- removing pollutants from stormwater runoff
What are examples of strategies for SS Credit 6.2: Stormwater Design (Quality Control)?
- permeable paving;
- vegetated swales;
- cisterns and rain barrels; and
- green roofs
What is the heat island effect?
- "It is much cooler in the suburbs than in downtown"
- Warmer temperatures are experienced in urban landscapes compared to adjacent rural areas as a result of solar energy retention on construction surfaces.
What is the intent of SS Credits 7.1 and 7.2: Heat Island Effect (Roof and Non-Roof)?
Reduce heat island to minimize impact on microclimate and habitats.
What SRI is required to obtain SS Credit 7.1: Heat Island Effect (Non-Roof)?
SRI of 29 or greater.
What are examples of strategies for SS Credit 7.1: Heat Island Effect (Non-Roof)?
- Use high reflectance materials for hardscape;
- replace constructed surfaces with vegetated surfaces; and
- specify high-albedo (reflective) materials
What is the intent of SS Credit 8 (Light Pollution Reduction)?
- Minimize light trespass from building and site;
- reduce sky glow to increase night sky access;
- improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction;
- reduce development impact on nocturnal environments
What is required to obtain SS Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction?
- Reduce power of interior lights that can be seen from outside by at least 50%, or shield them (11pm-5am);
- Exterior lights to meet ASHRAE 90.1-2007
What is the intent of SS Credit 9: Tenant Design and Construction Guidelines in CS projects?
To educate tenants about sustainable design in the core and shell, recommend sustainable strategies, products and materials, and make them aware of LEED CI.
What is the intent of SS Credit 9: Site Master Plan in School projects?
To ensure that environmental site issues included in the initial development are continued throughout future developments on the same site (resulting from changes in program or demography).
What is the intent of SS Credit 10: Joint Use of Facilities in School projects?
To allow school grounds/facilities to be used for non-school events (integrating it with the community).
Which are the Prerequisites and credits associated with WE?
- Prereq 1: Water Use Reduction
- Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping
- Credit 2: Innovating Wastewater Technologies
- Credit 3: Water Use Reduction
What is the intent of WE Prerequisite 1: Water Use Reduction (20% Reduction)?
Reduce burden on the municipal water supply and wastewater systems
What is used to calculate the baseline for percentage of water reduction?
EPAct (or Energy Policy Act) of 1992/2005
NOTE: Since it has the word "energy" in the title and we are talking about water management, we would never think to choose it! Yet it is the correct answer!
What is included and excluded in the WE Prerequisite 1: Water Use Reduction (20% Reduction)?
- Includes: Water closets, urinals, showers, kitchen sinks and lavatories
- Excludes: Irrigation
What is the intent of WE Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping?
- Reduce use of potable water or other natural water resources for landscape irrigation
- --50% or 100% reduction, 2 or 4 points awarded--
What is included in WE Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping?
Includes: Only landscaping-related fixtures (irrigation)
What is required to obtain WE Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping?
- Reduce potable water use for irrigation;
- use reused, reclaimed, or graywater; and
- use NO irrigation
What are examples of strategies for WE Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping?
- native plants;
- moisture sensors;
- evapotranspiration controlers;
- drip systems;
- mulching (reduces evaporation)
What is the efficiency of drip irrigation?
90% (as opposed to 65% for conventional systems)
What is the intent of WE Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies?
- Reduce generation of wastewater;
- reduce potable water demand;
- increase local acquifer recharge
What is required to obtain WE Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies?
- reduce potable water for building sewage;
- treat wastewater on-site
What is included in WE Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies?
Includes: urinals and waterclosets only
What are the 5 assumptions used in wastewater calculations?
- 1:1 ratio of males to females
- 1 water closet use for males, 3 water close use for females
- 2 urinal uses for males
- 1.6 gpf conventional water closet
- 1.0 gpf conventional urinal
- 2.5 gpf conventional lavatory and kitchen sink
What are examples of strategies for WE Credit 3: Water Use Reduction?
- high-efficiency fixtures;
- dry fixtures;
- occupant sensors;
- reuse of stormwater and graywater for non-potable use
What is included and excluded in WE Credit 3: Water Use Reduction?
- Includes: Showers, kitchen sinks, urinals, lavatories (SKUL)
- Excludes: Landscaping/Irrigation
- --30%, 35% and 40% reduction, 2, 3, or 4 points awarded--
What is required to obtain WE Credit 4: Process Water Use Reduction in School projects?
- No refrigeration equipment to use once-through cooling with potable water;
- no garbage disposals;
- at lesat 4 process water use items with 20% recution in water use from benchmark
Which are the Prerequisites and credits associated with EA?
- Prereq 1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems
- Prereq 2: Minimum Energy Performance
- Prereq 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management
- Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance
- Credit 2: On-Site Renewable Energy
- Credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning
- Credit 4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management
- Credit 5: Measurement and Verification
- Credit 6: Green Power
What is the intent of EA Prerequisite 1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems?
Verify that the building's energy related systems are installed, calibrated, and perform according to the owner's project requirements (OPR), basis of design (BOD), and construction documents.
NOTE: This is for energy-related systems ONLY! They don't care about bamboo floors or wall insulation
What are the 5 benefits of commissioning?
- reduced energy use (5-10% improvement in energy efficiency);
- lower operating costs;
- reduced contractor callbacks, better building documentation;
- improved occupant productivity; and
- verification of performance
What are the 4 items that must be commissioned?
- domestic hot water;
- renewable energy systems; and
- lighting controls
Which are the 6 steps involved in commissioning?
- Designate a commissioning agent (CxA);
- The owner's project requirements (OPR) and basis of design (BOD) are submitted to CxA for review;
- Incorporate commissioning requirements into construction docs;
- Develop and implement a commissioning plan;
- Verify installation and performance of comissioned systems; and
- Complete a summary commissioning report
What is the intent of EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance?
Establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building
What is required to pass EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance?
- Identify size and type of building use; and either
- 1) do a survey of energy usage (prescriptive approach), or
- 2) use an energy model
What standard is used for establishing fulfillment of EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance?
What are examples of strategies for EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance?
- Optimize building orientation;
- use natural energy sources such as solar, geothermal;
- increase building envelope efficiency;
- use energy efficient systems (light and HVAC); and
- recover and reuse waste energy.
What is the intent of EA Prerequisite 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management?
To reduce ozone depletion
What is required to pass EA Prerequisite 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management?
- Zero use of CFC-based refrigerants on HVAC (only);
- phase out CFC in major renovations;
- implement phase out plan for following 5 years
What are examples of natural refrigerants?
- carbon dioxide
What is the intent of the EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance?
- To achieve increasing levels of energy performance above the baseline given by code/prerequisites
- --points awarded vary depending on the amount of energy reduced (1 to 19 points, for 12% to 48% reduction or more)--
What is the intent of the EA Credit 2: On-Site Renewable Energy?
To encourage increasing levels of on-site renewable energy self-supply to reduce fossil fuel energy use
Which systems are considered eligible for fulfilling the EA Credit 2: On-Site Renewable Energy? Which are not eligible?
- Eligible: PV or solar thermal systems;
- bio-fuel systems;
- geothermal heating/electric systems;
- hydro/tidal systems;
- wind-based systems;
- Not Eligible: ground source heat pumps
What is the intent of the EA Credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning?
Begin commisioning early, and execute additional activities after system performance is completed
What is required to obtain EA Credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning?
- Conduct a commissioning review prior to mid-construction docs;
- review contractor submittals for systems being commissioned;
- commisioned systems manual; and
- verify training requirements;
- review building operation within 10months after substantial completion
What is the Montreal Protocol?
It bans the production of CFC's and it is phasing out HCFC's by 2030 to preserve the stratospheric ozone.
What is the intent of EA Credit 4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management?
Further reduce ozone depletion and support early compliance with Montreal Protocol.
What is required to obtain EA Credit 4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management?
- Minimize or eliminate refrigerants that contribute to global warming;
- do not use refrigerants (optional); and
- do not use refrigerants in fire suppression systems.
What is the intent of EA Credit 5: Measurement and Verification?
To provide for the ongoing accountability of building energy consumption over time
What is required to obtain EA Credit 5: Measurement and Verification?
- Develop and implement a M&V plan; and
- provide a process for correction if energy savings are not being achieved
What are examples of strategies for EA Credit 5: Measurement and Verification?
- Install metering and submetering equipment to track energy use (like extra thermostats);
- track performance vs. predictions;
- use building automated systems
What is the intent of EA Credit 6: Green Power?
To encourage the development and use of grid-source, renewable energy technologies on a net-zero pollution basis
What are RECs?
Renewable Energy Certificates
What is required to obtain EA Credit 6: Green Power?
- Purchasing electricity from the local provider that comes from renewable sources (Green-e); or
- purchase RECs
Which are the Prerequisites and credits associated with MR?
- Prereq 1: Storage and Collection of Recyclables
- Credit 1.1: Building Reuse (Maintain Existing Walls, Floors, & Roof)
- Credit 1.2: Building Reuse (Maintain Interior Non-Structural Elements)
- Credit 2: Construction Waste Management
- Credit 3: Materials Reuse
- Credit 4: Recycled Content
- Credit 5: Regional Materials
- Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials
- Credit 7: Certified Wood
What is the intent of MR Prerequisite 1: Storage & Collection of Recyclables?
To reduce the waste by building occupants that goes into landfills.
What is required to pass MR Prerequisite 1: Storage & Collection of Recyclables?
- Have designated places to collect and store recyclable materials (have recycling bins) for
- corrugated cardboard;
- glass; and
What is the intent of MR Credit 1 and 1.1 and 1.2: Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors & Roof AND Maintain Interior Non-Structural Elements?
- "To keep what is already in place to avoid using new stuff and disturb more land"
- To extend the life cycle of existing building stock, conserve natural resources, retain cultural resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as they relate to materials manufacturing and transport.
What is required to obtain MR Credit 1 and 1.1: Building Reuse - Maintain Existing Walls, Floors & Roof?
- To maintain an existing building's structural floor & roof decking; and
- keep exterior skin and framing
- --excludes hazardous materials--
What is required to obtain MR Credit 1.2: Building Reuse - Maintain Interior Non-Structural Elements?
- Use existing interior walls, doors, floor covering and ceiling systems, for example
- --opposite of typical demolition and interior buildouts--
- NOTE: Items reused must perform the same function before and after. If not, a MR Credit 3 applies.
What is the intent of MR Credit 2: Construction Waste Management?
- To divert C&D debris from going into landfills; and
- redirect recyclable resources back into manufacturing loop
What kind of materials can be recycled to obtain MR Credit 2: Construction Waste Management?
- acoustical tile;
- clean wood;
- gypsum wallboard;
- electronics and lighting.
What is the intent of MR Credit 3: Materials Reuse?
To reduce building materials and products in order to reduce impacts associated with extraction and processing of virgin resources.
What are examples of strategies for MR Credit 3: Materials Reuse?
- Use salvaged materials from on or off site;
- NOTE: Salvaged materials from C&D do not count towards this credit, as they count for MR Credit 2
What is the intent of MR Credit 4: Recycled Content?
To increase demand for building products that incorporate recycled content materials, thereby reducing demand for virgin materials
Which materials count for MR Credit 4: Recycled Content?
- Those with recycled content:
- Includes: pre-cousumer or post-consumer
- Excludes: Items recycled back into the same manufacturing process; and Plumbing, mechanical or electrical components
What is the intent of MR Credit 5: Regional Materials?
To increase the demand for building materials and products that are extracted and manufacured within the region
What is required to obtain MR Credit 5: Regional Materials?
- Building materials or products must have been extracted, harvested or recovered, and manufactured within 500 miles of the project site
- --if a fraction of the item is regional, use only the percentage of regional material in the calculation--
- NOTE: Credits from MR Credit 3 apply here also
What is the intent of MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials?
To reduce the use and depletion of finite raw materials and long-cycle renewable materials
What is the harvest cycle for materials required to obtain MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials?
10 year cycle or shorter
What kind of materials have a 10 year or less life cycle?
- cotton insulation;
- strawboard; and
What is the intent of MR Credit 7: Certified Wood?
- To encourage environmentally responsible forest management.
- --"chain-of-custody" documentation is important for this credit!--
What is required to obtain MR Credit 7: Certified Wood?
- Use wood certified by the FSC;
- use percentage of wood that is certified in the calculations
Which are the Prerequisites and credits associated with EQ?
- Prereq 1: Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
- Prereq 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
- Credit 1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
- Credit 2: Increased Ventilation
- Credits 3.1 and 3.2: Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan
- Credits 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4: Low-Emitting Materials
- Credit 5: Inodrr Chemical and Pollutant Source Control
- Credits 6.1 and 6.2: Controllability of Systems
- Credits 7.1 and 7.2: Thermal Comfort
- Credit 8.1 and 8.2: Daylight and Views
What is the intent of EQ Prerequisite 1: Minimum EAQ Performance?
To enhance a minimum IAQ performance to enhance indoor air quality in buildings to contribute to comfort and well-being of occupants
What is the standard associated with EQ Prerequisite 1: Minimum EAQ Performance?
--IAQ rhymes with 62--
What is the intent of EQ Prerequisite 1: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control?
To prevent, minimize or eliminate exposure of building occupants, surfaces and air handling systems to second hand smoke (ETS)
What is required to pass Prerequisite 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control?
- no smoking in the building;
- no smoking within 25ft of any opening or air intake; and
- smoking areas within building must have negative pressure with impermeable floor to ceiling partitioning.
What is the intent of EQ Credit 1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring?
To help sustain occupant comfort and well-being by monitoring ventilation system
--an electronic device that emits an alarm when conditions vary by a certain percentage is necessary--
What is the intent of EQ Credit 2: Increased Ventilation?
To provide additional outdoor air ventilation to improve IAQ.
--this credit is NOT recommended in Florida!--
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 2: Increased Ventilation?
- To increase outdoor ventilation rates in mechanically ventilated areas by at least 30% above minimum rated by ASHRAE 62.1;
- and to design natural ventilation systems using the Carbon Trust "Good Practice Guide 237"
What are examples of strategies to obtain EQ Credit 2: Increased Ventilation?
- heat recovery to minimize additional energy consumption; or
- increase outdoor ventilation
What is the intent of EQ Credits 3.1 and 3.2: Construction IAQ Management Plan (During Construction and Before Occupancy)?
To protect construction workers and occupants from IAQ problems resulting from the construction/renovation process
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 3.1: Construction IAQ Management Plan (During Construction)?
- To develop a IAQ plan;
- meet or exceed SMACNA guidelines;
- protect on-site or installed equipment from moisture;
- use proper filtration in air handlers during construction (every intake must have a filter);
What are examples of strategies to obtain EQ Credit 3.1: Increased Ventilation (During Construction)?
- Do not use permanent HVAC systems during construction;
- specify materials with low toxicity levels;
- isolate areas of work to avoide contamination of clean spaces;
- coordinate construction activities to minimize contamination
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 3.2: Construction IAQ Management Plan (Before Occupancy)?
- Perform a flush-out (pump out all "dirty" air from inside, introduce fresh air); or
- do air quality testing to prove contaminants are not present (testing must be done before bringing in furniture)
What is the intent of EQ Credits 4.1 through 4.6: Low Emitting Materials?
To reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that are odorous, irritating and/or harmful to installers and occupants
What are the standards associated with EQ Credits 4.1 through 4.6: Low Emitting Materials?
- Green Seal Standard and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) for paint & adhesives;
- Carpet and Rug Institute Green Label;Greenguard for furniture and furnishings; and
- Floorscore for flooring other than carpets.
What are the materials concerned with each EQ Credit 4.1 through 4.6?
- EQ Credit 4.1: Adhesives and Sealants
- EQ Credit 4.2: Paints and Coatings
- EQ Credit 4.3: Flooring Systems
- EQ Credit 4.4: Composite Wood and Agrifiber Products
- EQ Credit 4.5: Furniture and Furnishings
- EQ Credit 4.6: Ceiling and Wall Systems
What is the intent of EQ Credit 5: Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control?
Minimize exposure of building occupants to potentially hazardous particulates and chemical pollutants.
What are examples of strategies to obtain EQ Credit 5: Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control?
- entry mats and grates;
- proper filters (MERV 13);
- exhaust hazardous chemical use.
What is the intent of Credits 6.1 and 6.2: Controllability of Systems (Lighting and Thermal Comfort)?
To provide a high level of lighting and thermal system control to individual occupatns to promote the productivity, comfort, and well being of building occupants.
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 6.1: Controllability of Systems (Lighting)?
To provide individual lighting controls to 90% of occupants
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 6.2: Controllability of Systems (Thermal Comfort)?
- Provide individual comfort controls for 50% of occupants
- NOTE: Operable windows can be used.
What is the intent of EQ Credit 7.1: Thermal Comfort (Design)?
To provide a comfortable thermal environment that supports productivity and well-being.
What is the standard associated with EQ Credits 7.1 and 7.2: Thermal Comfort (Design and Verification)?
What is the intent of EQ Credit 7.2: Thermal Comfort (Verification)?
To provide for the assessment of building thermal comfort over time
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 7.2: Thermal Comfort: Verification?
- To achieve Credit 7.1;
- use ASHRAE 55-2004 for designing the system;
- implement a survey of occupants and develop a plan for corrective action if 20% or more of them are not satisfied with the thermal comfort of the building
What is the intent of EQ Credit 8.1: Daylight and Views (Daylight)?
To provide connection between indoors and outdoors for occupants in 75% of spaces.
What are examples of strategies to obtain EQ Credit 8.1: Daylight and Views (Daylight)?
- Building orientation;
- shallow floor plates;
- increased building perimeter;
- shading devices;
- high-performance glazing;
- use of computer simulations
What is required to obtain EQ Credit 8.2: Daylight and Views (Views)?
Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor via vision glazing between 30-90inches a.f.f.
What are examples of strategies to obtain EQ Credit 8.1: Daylight and Views (Daylight)?
- lower partition heights;
- interior shading devices;
- interior glazing;
- automatic photocell-based controls
What is the main concern of EQ Credit 9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance for Schools projects?
To reduce sound transmission.
What are the credits associated with ID?
- ID Credit 1.1 through 1.5: Innovation in Design
- ID Credit 2: LEED AP
What is the intent of ID Credit 1.1 through 1.5: Innovation in Design?
- To give the team points for:
- exemplary performance (above and beyond the requirements of any credit); and
- innovative performance (for categories not specifically addressed by the rating system used, for which you haven't gotten credit anywhere in the scorecard).
What is the intent of ID Credit 2: LEED Accredited Professional?
- To support and encourage design and integration, and streamline application and certification process.
- NOTE: At least one principal participant of the project team must be a LEED AP
What is the intent of the Regional Priority Credits? And where to find these credits?
To address geographically-specific environmental priorities
NOTE: The local chapter decides these credits; and regional priority points to achieve can be found by project zipcode in the USGBC's website.
Which are the 6 key players involved in Integrated Design?
- Commissioning Authority (CxA);
- Facilities Staff; and
- Building Users
Green buildings can reduce energy use by how much (%)?
Green buildings can reduce CO2 emissions by how much (%)?
Green buildings can reduce water usage by how much (%)?
40% (50% on gold or platinum certification)
Green buildings can reduce solid waste by how much (%)?
Green buildings can reduce maintenance costs by how much (%)?
What is the approx. cost of commissioning for existing buildings? And how much can it yield in savings?
$0.27 per square foot
Whole building energy savings of 15%
How much of a building's energy is used for space heating?
How much of a building's energy is used for electric lighting?
How much of the solid waste is recycled?
How much can daylight improve students' learning in math and reading?
- 20% in math;
- 26% in reading
How much time do Americans spend indoors, according to the EPA?
90% of their time is spent indoors
How much more satisfied are occupants of green buildings?
27% higher levels of occupant satisfaction
How much of the greenhouse gas emissions are produced by transportation according to the US Energy Information Assoc.?
How much energy is typically used for office equipment in the US?
How much energy is typically used for personal computers in the US?
How much energy is typically used for cooking in the US?
How much energy is typically used for refrigeration in the US?
How much energy is typically used for ventilation in the US?
How much energy is typically used for cooling in the US?
How much energy is typically used for water heating in the US?
How much energy is typically used for lighting in the US?
How much energy is typically used for Space Heating in the US?
How much of the total energy and electricity in the US is consumed by buildings?
- More than 30% of total energy; and
- more than 60% of electricity used.
How much water is used to flush toilets in the US daily?
5 billion gallons of potable water
How much solid waste does the typical US commercial building generate per day?
1.6 pounds of solid waste per employee per day
What percentage of commuters drives to work alone?
What percentage of commuters uses public transportation or carpools?
5% uses public transportation, 11% carpools
How much of the electricity produced is used to cool buildings?
1/6 (or 16%)
How many brownfields exist in the US?
More than 450,000
How many degrees difference makes the heat island effect?
2 to 10 degrees higher on urban areas than suburban areas
How much public water do Americans consume, according to the US Geological Survey?
43.3 billion gallons per day
How much of the water is lost to evaporation or transpiration, as opposed to being discharged back into the water bodies once used?
Only about 14%
How much of the nation's water bodies are deemed unsafe for swimming and fishing?
About 1/3 (30%)
When are water shortages expected to begin
in many states?
As soon as 2013.
How much of the electricity generation sector includes coal-fired plants?
How much sulfur dioxide is released into the air every year from electricity generation processes?
More than 13 million tons per year
How much of the solid waste in the US is related to C&D?
How much energy is required to produce recycled aluminum, as opposed to virgin aluminum from bauxite?
About 5% of the energy it takes to produce virgin aluminum
How much raw stone, gravel, and sand is consumed by building (%)?
How much virgin wood is used for buildings (%)?
How much of the world's productive forests are FSC-certified forests?
Which are higher: the pollutants of indoor or outdoor environments?
Indoor environments may be 2 to 5 times (sometimes 100 times) higher than outdoor
How many days of absence in schools are attributed to indoor pollutants?
14.7 million days of absense in school each year
What are the estimated economic gains from improved indoor environmental quality?
- $6-14 billion from reduced respiratory disease;
- $1-4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma;
- $10-30 billion from sick building syndrome;
- $20-160 for improvements in worker performance
What is the CO2 concentration of outdoor environments?
300 to 500 ppm, depending on local and regional factors
What are hard costs? Give examples.
- Those related to physical items purchased to be permanently installed in the project, such as:
- wall systems;
- HVAC/lighting systems;
- types of interior finishes
What are hard costs influenced by?
- Overall first cost of purchase;
- expertise of labor necessary for installation; and
- time and resoures needed for installation
What are soft costs? What are they influenced by?
- Design, engineering, and construction professionals' time put on a project.
- They are heavily influenced by experience and other factors.
What is considered in life-cycle costing (LCC)?
- It is a comparison of items relative to their first cost and performance. It considers:
- initial cost;
- replacement cost;
- residual value;
- energy cost;
- water cost; and
- operating, maintenance and repair costs
Why go green?
- If you have higher first costs you can recover them;
- buildings are more efficient (energy, water & waste);
- employee productivity is boosted;
- health is enhanced;
- sick building claims (liability) are less likely;
- creates value for tenants;
- increses property value;
- allows you to take advantage of incentive programs;
- benefits the community; and
- you can achieve more predictable results.
Which are the main drivers for cost on a LEED-certified building?
- Experience of team;
- level of standards (how strict they are to begin with);
- credits being sought
What does FAR stand for, and what does it consist of?
- Floor Area Ratio
- It is the total non-residential building floor area divided by the total buildable land area available for non-residential use.
What are biofuels made of?
Organic material such as animal and plant waste
According to the Montreal Protocol, when did CFC production end in the US?
What is the difference between Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Life Cycle-Cost (LCC)?
- LCA = environmental impact, while
- LCC = economic performance
What Section the EPA's Clean Air Act implements the Montreal Protocol (and establishes regulations for ozone-depleting compounds like CFCs)?
What is the average cost of certification for a USGBC member's project?
What is meant by "project boundary"?
The portion of the project submitted for LEED certification (cannot be more than 2% of building boundary)
What is referred to as "high density" in residential areas, in terms of number of dwelling units?
10 or more dwelling units per acre of buildable land
What is referred to as "moderate density" in residential areas, in terms of number of dwelling units?
7 or more dwelling unites per acre of buildable land
What is referred to as "very high density" in residential areas, in terms of number of dwelling units?
20 or more dwelling units per acre of buildable land
How much of the UV light is absorbed by the ozone layer?
How many credits are specified for each LEED rating system for each zipcode? How many can be earned?
6 Regional Priority Credits specified by zip code (can earn up to 4)
What is meant by "leakage rate"?
The speed at which an appliance loses refrigerant
Who runs ENEGY STAR?
The EPA (it is a government standard)
Which water fixtures do not comply with the EPAct of 1992?
Those made prior to 1993
What is the minimum floor area needed for NC, CS, Schools, and EB projects?
What agreement gives the ozone layer legal protection?
The Montreal Protocol
What is meant by emissivity?
- The ration of energy radiated by a particular material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature.
- It is a measure of a materials ability to radiate absorbed energy.
What are other names for RECs?
- Tradable Renewable Certificates (TRC); and
- Green Tags
Which are the most important community issues for the project team to research?
- local green building policies and incentives;
- parking requirements; and
- building codes
What percentage of occupants must deem indoor conditions acceptable for ASHRAE 55-2004 to accept it?
80% or more
How much of the C&D waste must be diverted from landfills and incinerators to get credit?
50% or more
Which are considered alternative-fuel vehicles by LEED?
- those that use electricity;
- compressed natural gas;
- liquid natural gas;
- methanol; or
What is the function of credit synergies?
To incorporate green measures through a comprehensive holistic design
Is storm water runoff increased or decreased by impervious materials?
Should attachments (photographs, drawings, and product information sheets) accompany CIRs?
What is the USGBC Portfolio Program?
A cost-effective streamlined certification process for multiple building certifications. It lets organizations achieve LEED certification on a volume scale.
What 3 things are included in the preliminary LEED rating?
- target certification level;
- selected credits; and
- completed LEED scorecard
Which is the most environmentally appropriate water to use for flushing toilets?
Can innovation points be earned for prerequisites?
What is meant by Global Warming Potential (GWP)?
- It is the direct effect/impact on global warming of an item or action;
- its chemical contribution.
How many degrees difference does LEED consider to establish a heat island?
Which are the two sources of potable water?
- Wells; and
- Municipal water supply
What is greywater?
- That which is untreated, which has not come into contact with toilet waste water or kitchen sinks;
- from bathtubs;
- bathroom washbasins; and
- water from washing machines and laundry tubs
What are "letter forms" and what are other terms they are called?
- They are dynamic PDF forms that must be completed and submitted for documentation and verification that the requirements for a credit/prerequisite were met.
- They are also called credit forms;
- credit templates;
- submittal templates; and
Which standard is used to label the pre and/or post consumer content of recycled materials?
ISO 14000 and ISO 14021
What are the 3 categories covered by the EPAct of 1992?
Flowrates of showers, faucets, and toilets
What are transient occupants?
Those that do not use facilities consistently/on a regular basis (such as shoppers and college students)
What are halons?
Chemicals commonly used in fire suppression systems which cause ozone depletion
What three topics are covered by the ASHRAE standards?
- minimum energy efficiency requirements;
- ventilation rates; and
- thermal comfort conditions
What is another term for site area?
What standard defines what makes a comfortable indoor environment for occupants (including thermal comfort)?
Which is the standard used to calculate baseline water usage (worst case scenario!)?
EPAct of 1992
What 3 items are included in the ISO 14000 product oriented standards?
- Environmental Labels and Declaration;
- Life Cycle Assessment; and
- Design for Environment
What are the 2 required attributes of ID credits?
- They must be:
- Comprehensive; and
Which standard provides the best practice techniques to verify energy performance of a new building?
Which vehicles are said to be low-emitting or fuel-efficient?
- Those that are classified as a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV); or
- have a score of 40 or more from the ACEEE annual vehicle rating guide
What is the SRI of black asphalt?
What is the ID Credit Catalogue?
A log of all ID credits that previous projects have achieved.
What are the 2 requirements to classify an area as an "open area"?
- It must be vegetated; and
How is density of nonresidential buildings defined?
Total floor area over the acres of buildable land
Which category in the LEED scorecard is given the most weight?
Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
What is "the declarant"?
The person who signs a particular submittal template
Who can submit a CIR?
Anyone on a project team
What 4 elements should the budget include for sustainable building?
- design fees and construction costs;
- LCC analysis;
- green building expertise; and
- contingency measures
What is meant by "gerrymandering"?
Unreasonably excluding sections of a land to create boundaries for the sole purpose of complying with prerequisites or credits
Which standard addresses indoor air quality issues resulting from construction and renovation?
What 3 things are included with the building program?
- It oulines the project green building requirements, including:
- goals; and
- room-by-room description
What are the two attributes incorporated by Solar Reflectance Index (SRI)?
- solar reflectance; and
Which is the most widely used energy code in the US?
The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), it includes information such as R-Values for insulation
Why isn't hydropower accepted by LEED as a source of renewable energy?
- Because of the water quality issues; and
- the impact it has on fish and wildlife
Who certifies paint, coatings and cleaning products?
Does rain water classify as potable water?
No, it is classified as greywater.
Are green roofs considered open spaces?
Yes, but ONLY in urban areas
Who rules on CIRs?
The Technical Advisory Group
What is meant by "albedo"?
It is the same as Solar Reflectance. It is a measure of a materials ability to reject solar heat
What is biomass?
It is plant material converted to heat energy to produce electricity
Which is the refrigerant with the lowest Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)?
What is the flow restriction for shower heads, as per EPAct of 1992?
What are 2 important documents that should be created for choosing the design team?
- Statement of Work (SOW); and
- Request for Qualifications (RFQ)
Which fauced doesn't come in low-flow?
Kitchen sink faucets