GEOG 203 Exam 2

  1. Weather
    Short-term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere
  2. air masses
    a homogenous body of air that has taken on the temperatures and moisture characteristics of its source region
  3. Air masses-temperature
    • m-Maritime
    • c-Conitinental
  4. Air masses-Temperature
    • A-Arctic
    • P-Polar
    • T-Tropical
    • E-Equatorial
    • AA-Anarctic
  5. cP
    • cool, dry, stable, high pressure, clear skies
    • Only in the northern hemisphere
    • most developed in winter
    • in mid and high latitudes
    • cold, dense cP air lifts moist, warm air in its path
  6. mP
    cool, moist, unstable
  7. mT
    • warm, humid
    • Gulf/Atlantic-unstable winter to very unstable summer
    • Pacific-stable to unconditionally stable, lower avg precipitation
  8. cT
    hot, low humidity, only in summer in USA
  9. atmospheric lifting mechanisms
    • convergent lifting
    • convectional lifting
    • orographic lifting
    • frontal lifting
  10. convergent lifting
    • air flows from different directions into the same low pressure area
    • along the ITCZ-cumulonimbus cloud development; high avg annual precipitation
  11. convectional lifting
    • stimulated by local surface heating
    • urbanized area-heat island
    • dark soil in a plowed field
    • If the conditions are unstable, initial lifting continues and clouds develop.
  12. orographic lifting
    • air is forced over a barrier ie) mountain range
    • lifting air cools by expansion
    • enhance convectional activity
    • cause additional lifting during the passage of weather fronts
    • creates dry regions leward of mountain
  13. Cold front
    formation of a narrow line of showers when enough moisture is present
  14. squall line
    • created by a fast-advancing cold front and its violent lifting
    • wildly changing and turbulent winds patterns
    • intense precipitation
    • ie) Gulf of Mexico
  15. Warm front
    Temperature inversion-->poor air drainage
  16. midladitudinal cyclonic systems
    • the conflict between contrasting air masses
    • migrating lower pressure center with converging, ascending air spirals inward counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere
    • results from PGF, Coriolis effect and friction force
    • movement controlled by jet streams
  17. thunderstorms
    • 3 places they develop
    • 1. in a warm, moist air mass
    • 2. along a cold front or dryline
    • 3. orographic lifting (upslope winds)
  18. dry line (squall??)
    a boundary that separates a warm, moist air mass from a warm, dry air mass
  19. severe thunderstorm
    • 3/4 inch hail or surface gusts of 58 mi/hr winds
    • formation-updrafts tilt
    • Result--high winds, flash floods, hail, tornadoes, down bursts
  20. downbursts
    • a column of air that, after hitting ground level, spreads out in all directions and is capable of producing damaging straight-line winds of over 150 mph
    • damage similar to tornadoes
  21. tornadoes
    • severe or super-cell thunderstorm
    • 100-600 meter diameter
    • winds up to 300 mph
  22. tropical cyclones
    • hurricanes between 5 and 20 degrees of the equator
    • too close to equator-no coriolis
    • too far from equator-water is too cold
  23. Recipe for hurricanes
    a mild disturbance (Easterly wave) in the tropics

    • deep layer of warm water
    • limited vertical wind shear
    • upper-level divergence
  24. Hurricanes
    • strong, low pressure (870-990mb)
    • inward flow of rising air
    • inward spiral of cloud bands
    • well-defined eye wall
    • weak descending air in the eye

    move from east to west in the tropics and curve NE as they move into the midlatitudes

    Season- June 1st thru November 30th
  25. impact of hurricanes
    • widespread flooding
    • high winds
    • storm surge
    • tornadoes
  26. storm surge
    • large wall or dome of water that rushes into the coastline as a result of a hurricane making landfall
    • combo of the wind-driven (more significant) surge and the pressure surge
  27. hydrologic cycle
    • an elaborate and global plumbing system
    • operated for billions of years from the lower atmosphere to several km beneath earth's surface
  28. reservoirs in the hydrologic cycle
    • atmosphere
    • oceans, lakes, rivers
    • soil
    • glaciers and snowfields
    • ground water
  29. main processes of the hydrologic cycle
    • evaporation
    • transpiration
    • condensation
    • precipitation
    • infiltration
    • percolation
    • runoff
  30. Pathways of precipitation
    • flow overland
    • soaks into soil
  31. interception
    when precipiation strikes vegetation or other ground cover
  32. stem flow
    • intercepted rain that drains across plant leaves and down their stems to the ground
    • important moisture route to the ground surface
  33. throughout flow
    precipitation that falls directly to the ground plus precipitation that drips onto the ground from vegetation (excluding stem flow)
  34. infiltration
    through which water soaks into the subsurface
  35. percolation
    through which water permeates soil or rock through downward movement
  36. long residence
    • 3000-10,000 years
    • deep ocean circulations, groundwater aquifers, glacial ice-->moderate temperatures and climatic changes
  37. short residence
    • about 10 days
    • temporary fluctuations in regional weather patterns
  38. soil-water budget
    precipitation = actual evapotranspiration + surplus +/- soil moisture storage

  39. evapotranspiration
    evaporation plus transpiration
  40. Precipitation
    • 78% ocean
    • 22% land
  41. transpiration
    cooling mechanism in plants through evaporation
  42. POTET
    • potential evapotranspiration
    • the amount of water that would evaporate and transpire under optimum moisture conditions when adequate precipitation and soil-moisture supply occur
  43. Surplus
    • sits on the surface in ponds, puddles, and lakes
    • flow across the surface toward stream channels-overland flow
    • percolate through the soil underground
  44. soil-moisture storage
    the volume of water stored in the soil that is accesible to plant roots
  45. hygroscopic water
    a molecule-thin layer tightly bound to each soil particle by the hydrogen bonding soil molecules
  46. capillary water
    to plant roots, held against the pull of gravity
  47. groundwater
    • important part of the hydrologic cycle
    • lies beneath the surface-beyond the soil-moisture zone
    • the largest potential (available) freshwater source
    • Threats: pollution-related water quality, overconsumption
    • NOT an independent source of water; relies on surfaec supplies for recharge
  48. Ocean and Freshwater Distribution
    • 97.22% Ocean
    • 2.78% Fresh
  49. water table
    top of ground water layer
  50. zone of saturation
    pores are completely filled with water
  51. zone of aeration
    soil and rock is less than saturated
  52. aquifer
    rock layer that readily holds water
  53. aquiclude
    a body of rock that does not conduct water-->impermeable
  54. artesian water
    groundwater that is confined under pressure
  55. potentiometric surface
    the pressure level to which water can rise on its own
  56. how much of earth's surface do continents cover?
  57. inner core
    solid iron-under tremendous pressure
  58. outer core
    molten, metallic iron with a lighter density than inner core
  59. lithosphere
    uppermost mantle-the crust
  60. asthenosphere
    • the plastic layer-dynamic pockets of increased heat from radioactive decay
    • susceptible to slow convective currents
  61. crust
    • irregular, brittle layer that resides restlessly on a dynamic and diverse interior
    • the weak nature of the rock allows for motion in earth's rigid outer shell
  62. Oceanic crust
    • thinnest
    • Basalt
    • high in density
    • SIMA-silica and magnesium
  63. continental crust
    • thickest
    • granite
    • SIAL-silica and aluminum
    • low in density
  64. isotasy
    crust is constantly rising and sinking
  65. endogenic system
    • internal
    • building landforms
  66. exogenic system
    • external
    • tearing down landforms
  67. tectonic cycle
    • brings the heat energy and new materials to the surface and recycles old materials to mantle depths
    • creates movement and deformation of the crust
  68. Plates are adrift because of....
    convection currents
  69. process response model
    how we understand most geomorphic processes today
  70. plate tectonic processes
    • upwelling of magma
    • plate movements
    • folding (warping)
    • faulting (shearing)
    • earthquake activity
    • volcanic activity
  71. divergent boundaries
    • where plates move apart
    • spreading center
    • zones of tension
    • creates fractures as the plates move apart
    • filled with molten rock
    • producing new slices of crust
    • results in rift valleys and seafloor spreading
  72. convergent boundaries
    • where plates move towards each other
    • collision zones, compression and crustal loss
    • causing one of the plates to sink into the asthonesphere by descending beneath the other
  73. Oceanic-continental
    • Cascada Range
    • The Andes
  74. Oceanic-Oceanic
    • subduction zone and deep ocean trench
    • subducting oceanic plate melts and rises; volcano forms on ocean floor
    • can lead to island arcs-chain of volcanic islands
    • ie) the Alaskan Peninsula, Philippines, and Japan
  75. Continental-Continental
    • when two continental plates converge
    • none will subduct (due to their low density)
    • collision between the plates
    • ie) Himalayas, Urals, Alps, Appalachians
  76. transform boundaries
    • when the plates slide past each other
    • neither convergance or divergence
    • no volcanic eruptions
    • primarily earthquake activity
  77. Evidence for plate tectonics
    • hot spots
    • ie) Hawaiian chain of volcanoes, Yellowstone, Kaual (oldest)
  78. Whether a rock bends or breaks depends on....
    • composition
    • deformation-ductile or brittle
    • gentle, slow, ductile-->folding (bending)
    • violent, abrupt, brittle-->faulting (tearing)
  79. folding
    • anticline: upholding, arching
    • syncline: downfolding, trough
  80. differential weathering
    • rocks of different strength will break down at different rates
    • over time the resistant rocks become highs and softer rocks become lows
  81. faults
    fractures in the crust along which appreciable crustal movement has occurred
  82. dip-slip fault
    • normal-tension
    • reverse-compression
  83. strike-slip fault
    • movement along the fault plane is horizontal
    • ie) San Andreas, North Anatolian Fault System
  84. Faults in concert
    • a roughly parallel series of faulted mountains and valleys
    • ie) Great Rift Valley of East Asia, Death Valley, Rhine Garden
  85. earthquakes
    vibrations in earth from sudden release of energy, radiates through the crust and diminishes with distance
  86. focus
    sub-surface area along a fault plane where motion is initiated
  87. epicenter
    area at the surface directly above the focus
  88. aftershock (foreshock)
    shock that occurs after (before) the main shock
  89. P waves
    • push-pull motion
    • travel through any material
  90. S waves
    • up-down/side-side motion
    • travel only through solids
    • shake the ground surface and can do severe damage
  91. surface waves
    • travel slower than S and P waves
    • cause much of the damage near the epicenter
    • rolling motion-cracks the walls and foundations
  92. Moment Magnitude Scale
    • modified version of the Richter scale
    • each increase of 1 represents a 10-fold increase in wave amplitude and 31.5-fold increase in the total amount of energy released
  93. liquefaction
    intense shaking can cause a near surface layer of water-saturated sand to change rapidly from a solid to a liquid
Card Set
GEOG 203 Exam 2
planet earth exam 2