Mammalian Endocrinology

  1. Definition: Endocrinology
    The study of glands of internal secretion and their role in the chemical integration, communication, and control of basic physiological process of the body in order to maintain homeostasis.
  2. Hippocrates
    1st to be interested in integration of chemical substances
  3. Aristotle
    Interested in castration; observed behavior and attitude changes.
  4. William Harvey
    English physician. studied circulatory system; especially the heart.
  5. John Hunter
    Transfered teste tissue into a hen-> observed she became more like a male.
  6. Bordeu
    Figured out the testes produce something
  7. Berthold
    Studied birds. Discovered 2 concepts: parts of body release specific materials into the blood; they are conveyed via blood to other parts of body.
  8. Bernard
    milleu interior: (deals with the blood and circulation) the balance affects how we feel.
  9. Addison
    Addison's disease: first endocrine disorder clinically defined.
  10. Sequard
    French prof/physician: At age 72 lost libido-> injected himself with dog testes extract (placebo effect)
  11. von Mering
    studied diabetes. discovered the removal of the pancreas changed the urine and the blood.
  12. Murray
    Discovered extracting glycerol from thyroid gland helped people with hypothyroid.
  13. Oliver and Schaefer
    epinephrin studies
  14. Baughmann
    Discovered that an increase in the concentration of iodine in the thyroid helped people with goiters.
  15. Bayliss and Starling
    digestion hormones. coined the term hormones.
  16. Bouin and Ancel
    studied what cells produce hormones in the testes (latig cell)
  17. MacCullum and Voetlin
    Studied Calcium metabolism (parathyroid gland)
  18. Pende
    coined the term endocrinology
  19. Farmi and von den Velden
    studied treatment of diabetes incipidus (fluid volume)
  20. Kendall
    isolated porsine thyroxine
  21. Harrington and Barger
    tried to synthesize thyroxine
  22. Stockard and Allen
    isolated estrogen on folicles from ovaries in rats. then injected into ginea pigs and controlled their menstrual cycles.
  23. Long and Evans
    growth hormone studies
  24. Doisey
    extracted estrogen from 9-10 tons of pig ovaries (only got about 4 mg)
  25. Dale
    oxtytocin experiments during labor
  26. Banting and Best
    insulin and dieabetes melitus (stole pancreases from dogs)
  27. Hisaw
    relaxin (opens birth canal)
  28. Aschein
    developed first pregnancy test (inject rabbit. ovulation means human is pregnant)
  29. Cannon
    coined homeostasis
  30. Allen
  31. Smith
    pipoffosectomy (romoved pituitary gland). determined it was the master endocrine glad of the body (or so they thought)
  32. Du Vigneaud
    structure of oxytocin
  33. Sanger
    synthesized insulin
  34. Yallow
    asessed what insulin does. RAA (radio amino assay)
  35. Katsoyanniss
    first to successfully sinthesize insulin
  36. Shally
    thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). discovered the hypothalamus.
  37. Sutherland
    studied protein hormones at a cellular level
  38. Image Upload 1
    Structure of Cholesterol
  39. -ene
    one double bond in steroid
  40. -diene
    two double bonds in steroid
  41. -triene
    three double bonds in steroids
  42. hydroxy-
    hydroxyl (OH) on steroid
  43. -ol
    hydroxyl (OH) on steroid
  44. -one
    ketone on steroid (=O)
  45. Estrane
    18 Carbons
  46. androstane
    19 carbons on steroid
  47. prenane
    21 carbons on steroid
  48. systemic/endocrine secretion
    transported by blood
  49. paracrine secretion
    diffuses to adjacent cells
  50. autocrine secretion
    hormone secreting cell and target receptor cell are the same
  51. juxtacrine secretion
    anchored to cell surface to act on adjacent cells only (very localized)
  52. neurotransmitters
    secreted by axon and transported across synapse to adjacent receptor
  53. pheromones/ectomones
    leaves body to find a target cell on another animal's body
  54. basal secretion
    constant release; not significantly influenced by feedback signals
  55. episodic secretion
    pulsatile episodes of release
  56. circhorial secretion
    frequency ~1/hr
  57. ultradian sectretion
    frequency >1/hr but<24 hr
  58. circadian secretion
    frequency ~every 24 hr
  59. quotidian frequency
    every day at defined periods of the day
  60. circatrigintan secretion
  61. circannual secretion
    seasonal or yearly
  62. EDC's
    Endocrine-distrupting chemicals (ex. detergents, pesticides, steroids, etc.)
  63. in vivo bioassay
    plasma or extracts injected into an animal and biological response measured (lack presision, sensitivity, inconvenient.)
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Mammalian Endocrinology