The study of glands of internal secretion and their role in the
of basic physiological process of the body in order to
1st to be interested in integration of chemical substances
Interested in castration; observed behavior and attitude changes.
English physician. studied circulatory system; especially the heart.
Transfered teste tissue into a hen-> observed she became more like a male.
Figured out the testes produce something
Studied birds. Discovered 2 concepts: parts of body release specific materials into the blood; they are conveyed via blood to other parts of body.
: (deals with the blood and circulation) the balance affects how we feel.
Addison's disease: first endocrine disorder clinically defined.
French prof/physician: At age 72 lost libido-> injected himself with dog testes extract (placebo effect)
studied diabetes. discovered the removal of the pancreas changed the urine and the blood.
Discovered extracting glycerol from thyroid gland helped people with hypothyroid.
Oliver and Schaefer
Discovered that an increase in the concentration of iodine in the thyroid helped people with goiters.
Bayliss and Starling
digestion hormones. coined the term hormones.
Bouin and Ancel
studied what cells produce hormones in the testes (latig cell)
MacCullum and Voetlin
Studied Calcium metabolism (parathyroid gland)
coined the term endocrinology
Farmi and von den Velden
studied treatment of diabetes incipidus (fluid volume)
isolated porsine thyroxine
Harrington and Barger
tried to synthesize thyroxine
Stockard and Allen
isolated estrogen on folicles from ovaries in rats. then injected into ginea pigs and controlled their menstrual cycles.
Long and Evans
growth hormone studies
extracted estrogen from 9-10 tons of pig ovaries (only got about 4 mg)
oxtytocin experiments during labor
Banting and Best
insulin and dieabetes melitus (stole pancreases from dogs)
relaxin (opens birth canal)
developed first pregnancy test (inject rabbit. ovulation means human is pregnant)
pipoffosectomy (romoved pituitary gland). determined it was the master endocrine glad of the body (or so they thought)
structure of oxytocin
asessed what insulin does. RAA (radio amino assay)
first to successfully sinthesize insulin
thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). discovered the hypothalamus.
studied protein hormones at a cellular level
Structure of Cholesterol
one double bond in steroid
two double bonds in steroid
three double bonds in steroids
hydroxyl (OH) on steroid
hydroxyl (OH) on steroid
ketone on steroid (=O)
19 carbons on steroid
21 carbons on steroid
transported by blood
diffuses to adjacent cells
hormone secreting cell and target receptor cell are the same
anchored to cell surface to act on adjacent cells only (very localized)
secreted by axon and transported across synapse to adjacent receptor
leaves body to find a target cell on another animal's body
constant release; not significantly influenced by feedback signals
pulsatile episodes of release
frequency >1/hr but<24 hr
frequency ~every 24 hr
every day at defined periods of the day
seasonal or yearly
Endocrine-distrupting chemicals (ex. detergents, pesticides, steroids, etc.)
in vivo bioassay
plasma or extracts injected into an animal and biological response measured (lack presision, sensitivity, inconvenient.)