CH 602 Test 1

  1. 1. Explain the origins of the Holy Roman Empire.
    As the Frankish empire degenerated a German mantle was put upon it. They wished to resuscitate the Roman Empire in the mid-10th century. Theirs was the longest-lasting effort to perpetuate the Roman Empire. As Voltaire noted, it was “neither Holy, nor Roman, nor Empire.” Still, the name stuck by the 13th century. The church brought Italy and Germany together.
  2. Describe the conflict and tension between the popes and the HRE emperors (notably Frederick II) in the Middle Ages.
    Popes and Emperors, while seemingly cooperative, also clashed greatly. Both grew in power in the early Middle ages. While the emperors wanted to expand their empire, the papacy often thwarted their aims. Even in civic matters the popes overarched the emperors’ powers. The Cathedral at Worms depicts the development of the HR emperors, and their interaction with the church.

    These conflicts were embodied during the reigns of Hohenstaufen Emperors Frederick I & II. Fred I (Barbarossa) made 5 military campaigns into the Italian peninsula (to the Pope’s dislike) but also went on a Crusade. Fred II had a continuous love/hate relationship with the RCC. He was excommunicated 3x. After his 2nd excom., he sank a Genoese fleet and took hundreds of captives, including many priests and cardinals. He was savage and cruel; regarded as the “great heretic of the age” who angered the church and many throughout Europe. Yet he was respected by the Germanic people in death, lore emerged that he would somehow plague the church posthumously. The papacy aggressively pursued Frederick’s descendants, even imprisoning one of his daughters over 40 years. The papacy utilized Machiavellian tactics in its own self-interest.
  3. Relate the importance of the Golden Bull of 1356.
    The Golden Bull of 1356 represents Papal acceptance of being removed from HR Emperor selection. Every emperor since Charlemagne (AD 800) had been crowned by the papacy. However, this grew into papal interference in the selection of the emperor. The Declaration of Rhense (1338) limited the selection of the emperor by German electorates. The Papal bull was an attempt to provide some kind of constitution for the papacy but instead it codified anarchy and called it a constitution. In brief, the Bull created the constitutional structure of late imperial Germany; and received papal ratification in 1356.
  4. 4. Describe the political structure of “Germany” at the dawn of the Reformation.
    The area now known as “Germany” in the late middle ages was far from centralized, and politically diverse. It was a multiplicity of principalities, ecclesiastical and secular, and under various rulerships. Luther’s Saxony was very disconnected from other parts of the HRE. Even the emperor could not always exercise his will, as the Diet often served to thwart his purposes.
  5. 1. Describe how Luther’s impetuosity and self-confidence affected his character.
    10.1A: Luther had self-confidence that resulted in obstinacy (a strength turned inside-out). He was prone to exaggeration and strong statement, and such a strong character that he polarized people into ardent supporters or fierce opponents.
  6. 2. Describe Luther’s talents as a deipnosophist, writer, and preacher.
    10.2A Luther very much enjoyed having guests at his table and talking over it, hence the term deipnosophist. The work Table Talk, while not always reliably Luther’s exact words, do set forth much of the character and substance of his talks. As a writer he was almost unbelievably prolific, producing some 70,000 pages in German and 2300 letters. As a preacher some 2300 sermons exist as testimony to his ministry of the Word.
  7. 3. Explain how Luther progressed as a reformer.
    • 10.3A: His progression is Church, Pope, Councils, Scripture.
    • A list of human failures in the church brought ML in a short time to the Protestant principle of sola scriptura. ML initially felt that the church would correct is problems. When he saw that as ineffective, he turned to the papacy. He felt that if only the papacy were better informed that reforms would ensue. Yet even an informed pontiff failed to bring reform, so he turned to the Councils. Confidence in the Councils waned as no significant reforms took place. He then resorted to the Scriptures alone; and while the RCC maintained that was there position also, Luther further defined that dependence as upon the Scriptures by regenerated reason spiritually understood.
  8. 4. Explain how Luther was both a pioneer reformer and a conservative reformer.
    10.4A: ML became a marked man, being excommunicated by the church. An imperial bounty was put on his head. Others, such as Calvin, would act upon his foundation and progress further. Luther was a man of faith, believing he was immortal until his work was done. Yet he was also conservative; there were ways he could have moved more rapidly or radically. However, he wished to focus on the gospel rather than upon ecclesiastical issues. He wanted the gospel to bring reform rather than human effort.
  9. 5. Name the most common criticisms of Martin Luther and offer a reply to each one.
    • 1. "Sin lustily" -- said in a letter to Melancthon (charge of antinomianism) Probably uttered unwisely, but the context is…
    • 2. Anti-Semitism (a valid charge, yet not unique to Luther). His calls for their deaths were typical of the day. In that case, many others are guilty alongside Luther; he was a product of his times.
    • 3. Marburg Colloquy (Oct 1-4, 1529: Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, and Oecolampadius (a Swiss reformer) met to discuss their doctrines.
    • 4. Baptismal Regeneration. "Luther didn't believe that baptism saves; but he didn't believe that there could be salvation without baptism."
    • 5. Philip of Hesse's bigamy. "What is it, if for the good and the sake of the Christian church, one should tell a good, strong lie?” Position on marriage stronger later.
    • 6. Conservative Reformer. It was the product of being pressed in religious and spiritual conflict. It is fairer to judge him by what he knew and when he knew it.
    • 7. Fits of depression (Anfechtungen). His hymnody shows how he preached the scriptures to himself to slowly pull out of these funks.
  10. 6. Describe the nature and results of the Marburg Colloquy.
    • 10.6A: The Marburg Colloquy (Oct 1-4, 1529) was a meeting of four reformers: Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, and Oecolampadius (a Swiss reformer) who met to discuss their doctrines. It was an effort to see if Germanic and Swiss protestantism could become allies against Rome. Schaff: Luther paired with Ecolampadius rather than Zwingli; "paired lions with lambs."
    • Found agreement on 14.5 out of 15 doctrines; disagreeing on the nature of the Lord's table (Luther dogmatically maintained constubstantiation). Luther wouldn't even shake Zwingli's hand, saying that "he was a man of a different spirit." Ensured that there would be at least 2 Protestantisms rather than one.
  11. 1. Trace the overall chronology of Luther’s life.
    • b. 1483, oldest son of a silver miner
    • 1484-1498—education at Mansfeld, Magdeburg, and Eisenach; feared father
    • 1501 matriculation at Erfurt; begins studying law (1505)
    • 1507 ordained a priest; journeys to Rome (1510)
    • 1512 transfers to Wittenberg; teaches Ps (1513); Rom (1515) and Gal (1516)
    • 1517 posts 97 theses (Sept) and 95 theses (Oct 31)
    • 1518 interviewed by Cajetan (Oct 12-14)
    • 1519 Charles V succeeds Maximilian; ML learns Heb/Gk; debates Eck
    • 1520 Luther reads Valla; Papal bull Exsurge Domine; Luther burns
    • 1521 Diet of Worms opens; summons ML; Apr 16-18 Luther at Worms; two hearings (17th and 18th); hijacked on return; became outlaw; begins NT
    • 1525 ML marries Catherine von Bora
    • 1526 1st Diet of Speyer suspends Diet of Worms. Prot reforms legalized.
    • 1529 Marburg Colloquy
    • 1530 Augsburg Confession presented; Rome announces death for sedition 1531 Smalkaldian League formed for protection against Catholic attack
    • 1539 Luther approves 2nd marriage for Philip of Hesse
    • 1546 Luther dies at Eisleben
  12. 2. Explain the impact of Luther’s 1510 visit to to Rome.
    11.2A Luther’s four-week visit to Rome in November of 1510 was in the role of cloister negotiator to settle dispute among differing Augustinian orders. Staupitz , the vicar general over all the Augustinian orders in Germany, wanted unity among all the monasteries, ; but Erfurt, and wealthier, reforming monastery, along with six others, opposed and went to Rome to argue their case; mission failed. While in Rome, Luther crawled through catacombs, climbed the Scala Sancta; his emotions ranged from “How blessed are you, Holy Rome!” to “Who knows whether this is really true?” He has opportunity to say the mass in Rome only to be hurried along by the next in line: “Passa, passa!” Luther ran through religious sites “like a mad saint” in his effort to see all he could while there. Thus he saw both Rome in its glory and religious pomp; as well as its underside.
  13. 3. Explain why Luther needed a doctor of theology degree.
    11.3A: The degree was ordered by Staupitz so Luther could teach the Scripture instead of Aristotle and preach himself into faith. The degree prohibited the teaching of heresy but permitted the free and unhindered discussions of questions of scriptural interpretation; Luther’s teaching was an administrative help to the very busy Staupitz. He was also supported by the Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony.
  14. 4. Explain the significance of Oct 31, 1517.
    11.4A Luther’s posting of Ninety-five theses were against the abuse—not practice—of indulgences. He mailed a copy to Albert. Wittenbergers had to travel eighteen miles to purchase from Tetzel. Luther naively assumed the pope did not know of abuses taking place in his name. Luther’s small classroom grew throughout Europe. Tetzel responded with 106 theses of his own after the doctorate was hastily conferred on him, although he would retire to a monastery. Maximilian sent word to Elector Frederick to take good care of Luther, saying, “We might, perhaps, have need of him some time or another.”
  15. 5. Explain the significance of Luther’s debate with John Eck, especially their controversy over John Huss (Hus).
    John Eck was a Dominican monk and a scholar defending the institutional RCC. Eck used a debate with Carlstadt, one of Luther’s colleagues, to get to Luther. The debate was arranged by Duke George of Saxony, who was not in sympathy with Luther. It centered on twelve points proposed by Eck. Luther added a thirteenth on papal authority. Dozens of armed men guarded the participants, and the debate lasted ten days. While Luther may have succeeded in undermining papal authority to some degree, the debate was “won” by Eck by linking Luther with John Huss, who was regarded as a heretic.
  16. 6. Relate the importance of Luther’s reading of Valla’s exposé on the Donation of Constantine.
    10.6A: The document in the form of an imperial decree transferred authority over Rome and the western Roman Empire from the emperor Constantine I to the pope. In Feb of 1520, Luther read Lorenzo Valla’s annotated edition of it in which the document was unmasked as a forgery. Luther consequently began to believe that the pope was the Antichrist, and that he was living in the last days. The Devil had penetrated the center of God’s agency.
  17. 7. Relate the importance of the papal bull of June 24, 1520, and the significance of Luther burning the bull on December 10 of that year.
    This would be the last straw forcing the division. The bull Exsurge Domine gave Luther sixty days to submit to forty-one errors and scandals listed. Students in Erfurt immediately disrespected the pronouncement by shredding it and tossing it into the rivers. Luther did not receive it himself until October 10. In November, he published his response, Against the Execrable Bull of the Antichrist, in which he asserted a Christian’s soul liberty. On the deadline of the ultimatum (December 10), while in Worms, Luther burned the bull by the city gate that opened on the city dump, and a confessional manual as well, saying, “Because thou has troubled the holy one of God, let eternal fire trouble thee.” He had completely rejected the authority of the papacy and pronounced an anathema upon Pope Leo X.
  18. 8. Relate the major events of the Diet of Worms.
    11.8A: The diet convened in Jan1521, and drafted and edict against Luther on Feb 17. The diet determined that no one should be placed under the ban without a hearing, and therewith issued a new invitation to Luther guaranteeing safe conduct. Luther arrived Apr 16 with 2,000 people escorting him through the city streets. The first hearing (Apr 17) posed two questions to Luther: did he author the numerous books assembled on the tables, and would he recant? Luther replied “yes” to the first, and requested time to answer the second “without loops and holes.” The next day at nightfall Luther gave his answer: “Unless I can be instructed and convinced from the Holy Scriptures or with open, clear, and distinct grounds and reasoning—and my conscience is captive to the Word of God—then I cannot and will not recant, because it is neither safe nor wise to act against conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me! Amen.”

    The diet, wielding the power of the Empire, would have had Luther executed were it not for the complication of the co-indictment of many others including Hutten, who possessed the military power to attack Worms with his forces. They desired a new bull from the pope isolating Luther. Luther thereby gained time and represented himself. On Apr 26, Luther left Worms and was hijacked and arrived at Wartburg castle where he resided for 10 months under the name Junker George. On May 26 the Edict of Worms was finally issued, by which Luther was declared an outlaw. Charles V was thus officially against the monk and Luther’s life was under constant threat.
  19. 1. List and explain the values of studying the English Reformation.
    A careful examination of the ER reveals that God, though He seems absent sometimes, is working in human affairs by providentially ordering events. It is similar to the way He works as seen in the book of Esther.

    His providences also use men in their weaknesses (such as Henry VIII’s issues with divorce and remarriage), and lengths of time to bring His will about. It also offers a glimpse into the roots of the American religious heritage, in that its roots are in the English reformation.
  20. 2. Explain how the English Reformation synthesized the Continental Reformation.
    12.2A The ER becomes a window to look into the other reformations on the continent of Europe (such as German and Swiss reformations). Many of the same types of conflict occurred there as they did in England. Thus, it is a valuable starting place for studying the Ref in other countries.
  21. 3. List characteristics of the English Reformation.
    • 12.3A: 8 things:
    • 1. Officially anti-Lutheran; but pro-Melanchthon
    • 2. Closer to the Lutheran normative principle rather than the more rigid regulative principle.
    • 3. Personal (involving Henry VIII’s attempts for a male heir)
    • 4. Political (attempts to justify Henry’s divorce and its implications)
    • 5. Partial (in the nature of the reform; doctrinally, practically, and chronologically)
    • 6. Puritan (who wished further progress; not wanting to look like Rome)
    • 7. No single leader.
    • 8. Latitudinarian—broad enough to encompass a variety of ecclesiastical and theological positions. E.g., the 39 articles seem at once Romish, Protestant, and Calvinistic
  22. 1. List and explain the precursors to the English Reformation.
    • 13.1A: 3 were given:
    • 1. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) between Fr and Eng. British monarchs made claims upon the Fr throne; the papacy relocated to Avignon and continually sided with the Fr against the British. Rift created between the Eng crown and the Fr papacy, and also b/t the Eng crown and the Eng commoners.
    • 2. The Black Death (1347-1350). Up to 1/3 of the European population died in 4 yrs. Produced concern for piety as people fear death.
    • 3. John Wycliffe (1330-1384), the “morning star of the Reformation,” and the Lollards (1372-1521). Wycliffe opposed the payment of annates to the papacy. The papacy decreed 5 bulls against him. W was dismissed from Oxford b/c of controversy. Lollards copied Scriptures, sold pages of the Bible; were willing to work for very little. Foxe devotes a lengthy section on how the Lollards were persecuted.
  23. 2. Identify the Lollards.
    13.2A The Lollards were followers of John Wycliffe (1330-1384), and their influence extended for some 200 years after him. Lollards copied Scriptures, sold pages of the Bible; and were willing to work for very little. The Lollards were heavily persecuted, as John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments documents at length.
  24. 3. Describe how Henry VIII enacted the English Reformation.
    • 13.3A: Reformation for Henry VIII was more incidental than intentional, and had much to do with his desire to have a male heir to the throne. Ascending the throne in 1509 upon his brother Arthur’s death, Henry also inherited his brother’s wife, Catherine of Aragon (a Catholic Spanish princess). It had been a political marriage to secure Spain’s help against France. Church law (based upon Lev 20.21), forbade marriage to a brother’s widow. But there was also a scriptural loophole: the Levirate law (Lev 21.25).
    • Henry and Catherine produced no male heir: five children died; one survived: Mary, who would be raised Catholic. Henry interpreted this as divine judgment. Henry asked the Pope for annulment, but Pope Clement VII kept postponing the matter.
    • Henry divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, spurning the Pope. The Pope placed Henry under interdict. England under Henry passed the Act of Supremacy (1534), by which she breaks with Rome and founds the Church of England. Further acts will advance and define English independence from Rome. Thus papal authority in England was broken.
  25. 4. Explain how church law and scriptural interpretation affected the marriage of Henry VIII to his brother’s wife.
    13.4A While the context of Lev 20.21 would naturally indicate that a man cannot marry his brother’s wife while he is still living, Henry (and the pope’s leading Cardinal in England agreed) that the text should be understood that the case was that she was his brother’s widow. The pope disagreed, citing the Levirate law of Lev 21.25, in which the honorable act was in the event of a brother’s death was for a man to “raise up seed to his brother.” Huge implications hung upon the interpretation, and the pope delayed judgment for several years, until Henry acted without the Pope’s blessing.
  26. 5. Explain why Clement VII could not grant an annulment of Henry VIII’s marriage.
    Clement had political and ecclesiastical reasons for denying the annulment. Although Henry had married Catherine under a special dispensation from a previous pope, Clement indefinitely delayed to grant the annulment based on the Mosaic Levirate law (cf. Dt 25.5-10). The greater reasons were political, it would appear. In 1527, when Henry requested the annulment, Clement was still in fear over Charles V’s troops sacking the Vatican just one year previously. The fact that Charles was Catherine’s nephew made angering her, and by extension--Spain and Charles made it an unsavory prospect. Clement’s loyalty was clearly with the Holy Roman Empire rather than renegade England.
  27. 6. Explain how Henry VIII used legislation, notably the Act of Uniformity, to accomplish his break with Rome.
    13.6A: Henry used a 14th century law prohibiting subservience to foreign monarchs to justify his divorce, which was ironically the same argumentation that Wycliffe had used. The Act of Supremacy (1534) was Henry’s divorce document, effecting Europe’s break with Rome and founding the Church of England. Ten Articles, published by the Church of England in 1536, recognized only 3 sacraments rather than the RCC’s 7.
  28. 7. Identify the Six Articles and the Ten Articles.
    13.7A: Ten Articles (1536) defined the Church of England’s sacraments as three rather than 7 in the RCC. Six Articles (1539) was a step backward against the reformers, as it was very Romish. Prots called it “the bloody whip with six strings,” because it made denial of transubstantiation punishable by death.
  29. 1. Describe the religious character of the reign of Edward VI.
    14.1A Edward’s reign was brief and overshadowed by two regencies. He was just 9 yrs old and two Protestant regents would bear their influence during these years. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer played a vital role during this time. England became a refuge for Euros fleeing persecution elsewhere, which helped to further England’s reformation. RCC liturgical service-book was replaced by BCP during Edward’s reign, and subsequent revisions became increasingly Protestant. The Somerset Regency (1547-49) was a more cautious Protestantism, but the Northumberland Regency promoted a more political, heavy-handed Protestantism. Forty-two articles will be produced in the year 1553 by Cranmer.
  30. 2. Describe the religious character of the reign of Mary I.
    14.2A: Mary reigned from 1553-1558, and was actually welcomed to the throne after the heavy-handed Northumberland regency. She attempted to reverse Protestantism’s advance in England. She earned the moniker “Bloody Mary” from Protestants by executing at least 288 Prots during her brief reign according to the laws of heresy of her day. Ryle viewed her as a “very Papist of Papists…, zealous, bigoted, and narrow-minded in the extreme…” In 1554 she officially brought England back under the papacy.
  31. 3. Describe the contribution of John Foxe.
    14.3A John Foxe wrote Acts and Monuments (commonly called "Book of Martyrs") under Mary’s reign as a record of persecutions from AD 1000 through his day. It became a powerful source among the English to keep England from returning to Catholicism after Mary’s death. It was issued in 8 volumes over time documenting Prot martyrs in fine print with detailed notes.
  32. 1. Explain what is meant by the “middle way” (via media) of Elizabeth.
    15.1A: Elizabeth ascended the throne after a brief but powerful Catholic counter-reformation under Mary. She attempted to unite factions in England by choosing neither extreme of Protestantism nor Catholicism, but a “middle way.” Her “Elizabethan Settlement” of 1569 imposed a compromise between Edward’s Prot and Mary’s Cath., and sought a reset to the kind of Catholicism practiced under Henry. It was significant in that its two acts consisted of making her the Supreme Governor of the Church of England (rather than Pope or Archbishop), and by the Act of Uniformity retained many of the trappings of the church of Rome in the Church of England. Anyone who took church office was required to take the Oath of Supremacy, recognizing her as the “supreme governor of this realm.”
  33. 2. Define the “Elizabethan Settlement.”
    15.2A: The “Elizabethan Settlement” of 1569 imposed a compromise between Edward’s Prot and Mary’s Cath., and sought to roll back the country to the kind of Catholicism practiced under Henry. It was significant in that its two acts consisted of making her the Supreme Governor of the Church of England (rather than Pope or Archbishop), and by the Act of Uniformity retained many of the trappings of the church of Rome in the Church of England. Anyone who took church office was required to take the Oath of Supremacy, recognizing her as the “supreme governor of this realm.” Both Catholics (called “Recusants”) and Protestants had factions who resisted the Oath.
  34. 3. Describe the contribution of John Foxe.
    15.3A: The Act of Uniformity retained many of the trappings of the church of Rome in the Church of England, requiring uniformity of belief and acts of polity. It reverted to the church to much as it was in the days of Henry VIII, a “Catholicism without the pope,” as one characterized it. It is fairly much where the church of England is today, m/l.
  35. 3. Describe the significance of Elizabeth’s Act of Uniformity.
    15.3A: The Act of Uniformity retained many of the trappings of the church of Rome in the Church of England, requiring uniformity of belief and acts of polity. It reverted to the church to much as it was in the days of Henry VIII, a “Catholicism without the pope,” as one characterized it. It is fairly much where the church of England is today, m/l.
  36. 4. Explain how latitudinarianism contributed to the formation of denominationalism.
    15.4A: In religious matters Elizabeth exercised a mentality called “latitudinarianism,” which attempted to suspend the Reformation in an infant state and not bring Ref principles to their logical conclusions. It became the soil of denominationalism by the church refusing to define itself. Therefore others (such as the Puritans) attempted to do so and fostered several denominational offshoots (e.g, Baptists).
  37. 1. Compare and contrast latitudinarianism and ecumenism.
    (7 areas of distinction)
    Latitudinarianism: official, national (broad within a nation), monolithic (loving uniformity); confessional, enforceable and punishable; policy, chronologically predates ecumenism

    Ecumenism: unofficial; International (broad, transcending nations); Multiple identities (purposeful diversity); Can be confessional, but typically less so; Only real "weapon" is exclusion; philosophy; Chronologically--begins with Schleiermacher
  38. 2. Describe the impact of the Geneva Bible and John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments on the English Reformation.
    16.2A: The NT of the Geneva Bible was completed in 1557, near the end of Mary’s reign. William Whittington (Calvin’s brother-in-law) was a major influence in the translation, and the translation was very Calvinistic in its notes. The popularity of this translation, along with the reformed persepective in its notes, increased pressure for further change in the Church of England.

    Foxe’s Acts and Monuments, captures in 8 volumes the history of martyrs from AD1000 to his present day, especially during the reign of Mary. Revisions continued until 1684, based on Foxe’s own works and eyewitness accounts. It served as careful documentation and strong warning for England not to go back under the papacy.
  39. 3. Define Puritanism and explain the concerns of the Puritans.
    • 15.3A: Puritans desired purity in doctrine (doctrinally); in worship (ecclesiologically); and in devotion and morality (by experience). They were both Biblicist and Calvinistic; opposed to Popery, prelacy, and paganism; and were distinctive in their homiletical style and experiential emphasis.
    • While remaining in the Elizabethan Church of England, Puritans rejected Elizabeth’s preference for some of the trappings of Catholicism and pressed further reform. An immediate concern was the wearing of priestly garments, which gave the appearance of a representative priesthood which is the actual power structure for worship in the RCC, and fails to recognize the reformation principle of the priesthood of the believer. Due to this, some who opposed them called them “Overstrict” and viewed other complaints of theirs as “an accumulation of trivialities.” But these were items that identified the church with Rome and its unscriptural practices; e.g., celibacy of priesthood, place of the communion rail, the mass and its observance; crossing an infant’s forehead; describing clergy as “priests,” and kneeling to receive the sacraments. Some 91 protests can found historically from the Puritans.
  40. 4. Identify the leading “Fathers” of Puritanism.
    • 16.4A:
    • · John Hooper, who was executed by Mary in 1555
    • · Thomas Cartwright
    • · Laurence Chaderton
    • · William Perkins.
  41. 5. Identify the four divisions of English Puritans.
    • · Episcopal Puritans, who wished to retain the episcopal polity but to refine its practice;
    • · Presbyterian Puritans, who were willing to take on the Episcopacy and the BCP;
    • · Congregational Puritans, who wished to implement congregational polity; and
    • · Separatist Puritans, who argued for a gathered church only of true saints who mutually expressed their faith in Christ.
  42. 6. List the three Puritan marks of the true church as well as the fourth mark added by the Separatists.
    • The Presbyterian Puritans called for
    • 1) right preaching;
    • 2) right sacraments; and
    • 3) right discipline;
    • the Separatist Puritans added their call for a
    • 4)true church formed with the saints who gather voluntarily, expressing their mutual faith in Christ
  43. 7. Identify John Jewel and Richard Hooker and their contribution to the church of England.
    • John Jewel authored An Apology for the Church of England, which was an apologetic against Rome’s complaints.
    • Richard Hooker authored Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and argued, God “approveth much more than he doth command,” which supports a normative principle of worship.
  44. 8. Describe Puritan hopes on the accession of James I and the Puritan Millenary Petition.
    It was hoped by the Puritans that James VI of Scotland would incorporate some of Scottish Presbyterianism into England as he would accede as James I of England. In 1603, Puritan leaders presented James with their Petition of various grievances they hoped he would correct; e.g., abuses in the service of the church; church ministers, church property holdings, and discipline. Over 1000 Puritan signatures were added to the document, hence the name.
  45. 9. Describe the results of the Hampton Court Conference and why James I opposed the Puritan agenda.
    In January 1604 James denied nearly all the requests of the Puritans at the follow-up meeting at Hampton Court, except the request for a new translation of Scripture made by John Reynolds. This was granted upon the condition that it would not contain notes such as were in the Geneva Bible. James believed in the “divine right” of kings and was thus not easily swayed by pressure. James’ rigidity forced Puritan ecclesiastical and political leaders to band together for greater power in Parliament, and thus James eventually harmed his own position.
  46. 1. Describe the reaction of James I to the Puritans.
    James’ official policy was “make them conform or harry them out of the land.” However, he privately did not want them to leave. He took steps to try to prevent disgruntled Puritans from leaving.
  47. 2. Describe the tension between the Puritan ideals of infant baptism and visible saints.
    Many Puritans practiced infant baptism (which effectively makes all members of the church), yet they conflicted with many other Puritans who believed that the church visible should be made up of true saints, thus conflicting with the earlier idea of a compulsory, state-sponsored church.
  48. 3. Explain the impact of the Gainsborough Separatist Church on the development of the Separatists and the Baptists.
    Gainsborough Separatist Church, established in 1602, was the parent church of both the Pilgrims and the first Baptist congregation. It had a friendly division in 1606, from which the Pilgrim group sprang after stops at Scrooby Manor, Amsterdam (1608), Leiden (1609, under Robinson), and then their departure to the New World in 1620. The other group of the division stayed first at Gainsborough before also escaping to Amsterdam (1608); Smyth and his church re-baptizes (1609), and then Helwys withdraws, returns to England, and establishes the first English Baptist church (1612).

    (see chart)
  49. 4. Describe the religious policies of Charles I.
    Charles brought Archbishop William Laud into the position (1633), a man who wished to impose high church Arminian ways to suppress Puritanism. Charles I was also married to a Catholic. He also believed in the Divine Right of kings even more than did his father. Thus many elements were present to cause suspicion that Charles would attempt to bring England back under the authority of Rome.
  50. 5. Relate the importance of Oliver Cromwell to the English Reformation.
    Cromwell’s interregnum (1649-1660) was during a time of strong Puritan influence. He brought wide religious toleration, as he was not a Presbyterian. He was influential for his opposing Charles, who lost his head at the hands of Parliament.
  51. 6. Relate the significance of John Bunyan and Richard Baxter.
    • Bunyan was imprisoned in 1660 about the time of the restoration of the Stuart dynasty. The Pilgrim’s Progress continues to be a classic on the Christian life.
    • Baxter was involved in the restoration of the monarchy after Cromwell. He is loved by many for his influence and practical piety, but decried by others because of his “neo-nomism” that was judged by some Puritan brethren to be a gospel that tended too much toward Rome in its stress on obedience. Was on committee revising BCP (to be more palatable to Puritans) and sought to bring a peaceful reconciliation between the Episcopacy and the Puritans. Was faulted for perhaps trying to achieve too much reform. Was involved in the Savoy Conference in which in return for Puritan support Charles II would be favorable to them; but after receiving support Charles almost immediately allowed Parliament to turn on them. He pastored in Kidderminster in the 40s and the 50s. Book The Reformed Pastor is a very important work.
  52. 7. Describe the acts by which the restored Stuarts made the church conform to their will and by which they expelled the Puritans.
    • 5 Acts (the Clarendon Code) put squeeze on Puritans; penalties imposed on those who would not conform.
    • · Corporation Act (1661)—all persons holding offices were required to renounce the league with Scotland;and to attest belief in the illegality of taking up arms against the king
    • · Act of Uniformity (1662)—Episcopal ordination prerequisite for the ministerial office, and required assent to the BCP. Implemented Aug 24, 1662. 1700 ministers were ejected from their pulpits. In the 1640s the Puritans forced as many as greater Episcopally minded ministers in similar fashion.
    • · Conventicle Act: anyone over 16 was prohibited from attending a meeting in which 5or more attended and the authorized liturgy was not used
    • · 1665 Five-Mile Act: dissenting ministers were displaced, and couldn’t come within 5 miles of any town represented in Parliament, or any town in which the minister had preached. Thus removed the means of livelihood for Puritan ministers.
    • · Test Act (1673): required all person holding an office of trust to certify that they had received the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper in an authorized church. In effect until the 19th century!
  53. 8. Define Nonconformity.
    Those who would not conform to the Acts of 1662-68 began to receive the label Nonconformists. These were not allowed burial in the church; many were buried in Bunhill fields. Bunhill fields notables: John Bunyan; John Owen; John Wesley’s mother; Isaac Watts (father of English hymnody—will codify Puritanism in his hymns and carry a dying Puritanism into the next century).
  54. 1. Explain how the meaning and the use of the term reformation changed and narrowed in the Reformation.
    1A. Reformatio was a popular buzz word in the late Middle Ages; people were mindful that the church and universities were in need of reform to be in keeping with their original purpose. The RCC’s solution in the 14th c was Conciliarism, calling for a council to effect these reforms. However, others, most notably Martin Luther, grew to realize that the church was rotten at its doctrinal core, rather than just in an ethical morass.
  55. 2. Describe how ML viewed the place of doctrine in the Reformation.
    2A. While he didn’t focus on it initially, Luther believed his reforms were far more substantive than the merely ethical efforts of the RCC, primarily due to his adherence to the Gospel. He stated, “I have reformed more with the gospel than they [RCC] have with five councils.”
  56. 3. Enumerate the breadth, tenor, and geography of the reforms and the Reformation.
    Tenor: Luther was no scofflaw, nor initially trying to cause division. He was a scrupulous Augustinian monk who raised issues he felt the church would want to correct. Yet his little shot reverberated and brought a giant religious system to its knees. Breadth: the Reformation was all-encompassing, affecting every area of life. Geography: it spread throughout W. and Central Europe; however, due to Orthodoxy’s influence in on the E. side of the Continent, Central Europe leaned back toward Catholicism.
  57. 4. Trace how historians have treated the concept of the Ref throughout history.
    • 3 major ways:
    • As a single event to be commemorated, with 1517 at its epicenter.
    • An era in church history, with estimation of the era varying greatly.
    • As a purely religious phenomenon, which fails to account for the political, economic, and sociological factors that contributed.
  58. 5. Explain the idea of the Counter-reformation.
    The C-R was action taken against the Reformers and those supporting them. This included those who repudiated evangelical doctrine and anathematized those holding to it. While not initially manifestly Catholic, by the mid-17th century the counter reformation merged with the Catholic Reformation.
  59. 1. Explain how the terms Continental, Swiss, Magisterial, Lutheran, Anglican, Reformed and Radical can modify the term Reformation.
    • Continental: on the continent of Europe as opposed to the British Isles
    • Swiss: that ref movement spearheaded by Zwingli and continuing with Calvin
    • Magisterial: in some places the Ref was implemented by magistrates with church support (cf Germany, Switzerland, and England)
    • Lutheran: indicates the 1st gen in Germany centered on Luther.
    • Anglican: not cooperative with the Lutheran reformation, its own political and religious upheaval producing the Church of England and many other Protestant groups
    • Reformed: the 2nd generation of reformers generally agreeing with Calvin and his theology, taking Luther’s reforms further
    • Radical: a new term since 1962, denoting reformers who agreed fully with neither Catholic or Protestant reforms, believing they didn’t go far enough
  60. 2. Explain what is meant by “the long Reformation.”
    While difficult to define dogmatically, some have expanded the Reformation to an era of 150 or more years, attempting to comprehend a variety of causes leading to the events of 1517 and beyond. Notable advocates include Seckendorf (1517-24); others, 1500-1650; Peter Wallace (1350-1750).
  61. 3. List and explain the causes of the Reformation.
    • · God’s grace to break the power of Satan’s deception and ignorance in the church.
    • · Abuse of Provisions and Expectancies—Papal maneuvering to fill church offices led to bidding and corruption, as well as Italian favoritism.
    • · Practice and Abuse of Indulgences—arguing the Christ, Mary, and the saints possess excess virtue, forgiveness of sins could be purchased by the penitent for their own and others.
    • · Years of Jubilee—begun in 1343 and some 50 years thereafter (with increasing frequency), this Papal event required a pilgrimage to St Peter’s or St. Paul’s for a full indulgence from the church. Luther observed that the Jubilee year was invented when indulgences became profitable; including their hastening and multiplying the jubilee years, as well as masses for the dead. Money was the issue that governed the church’s behavior.
    • · Policy of Appeal—when churchmen had a conflict, sometimes they appealed to Rome to resolve it. Rome would typically rule in favor of the first to appeal, which strengthened its hand and control. Rome fosters animosity to civil, local, and religious authority. The papacy becomes more powerful and corrupt; the church becomes more avaricious.
  62. 4. Define provisions and expectancies.
    The papacy increased its power through this practice. Anticipating an office coming open, over time positioned itself to provide key church offices with its own handpicked successor. Felt the authority to do so was Pauline. First by a Letter Commendatory (requesting the privilege of doing so); later by a Letter Mandatory (requiring the placement of a designated person). The Pope thus empowered began to receive bidders for offices and corruption ensued. This power shift aided the Romanization of Western Christendom. Papal appointments tended to go to Italians. Foreigners occupied the choicest sees [appointments], though often absent from them, or if present, often did not speak the language. The revenues from these benefices, deaneries, abbeys, etc. flowed to Rome.
  63. 5. Describe the practice and abuse of indulgences.
    • Because sin required some penalty, an equally demanding things (such as a large financial gift) to be substituted for a more difficult or impossible thing (such as a pilgrimage to Rome).
    • The heavenly treasury of the perfection of Christ and Mary, plus the superabundance of good works of the saints, could be drawn upon by the indulgence. It was a
    • transaction in the world to come, whereby full forgiveness of sin was given as barter for the indulgence. Possibly even bypass purgatory(!).
    • At first indulgences were good only for sins in this life; gradually expanded to apply to sins applied beyond this life (in purgatory).
    • In 1477 Sixtus IV declared that indulgences had retroactive value (could be purchased even for the faithful dead, for assurance that they could enter heaven and get out of purgatory).
    • John Wessel (1420-89) argued before Luther against the abuse of indulgences, which Luther referred to and emulated.
    • Erasmus ("In Praise of Folly" ) though a son of the church, masterfully skewered the abuse of indulgences and other errors of the church in "folly" form (a humorous genre).
    • Lutherprotested Indulgences as being the primary means of funding the rebuilding of St. Peter's basilica (a 100 yr project). This encouraged rapid sale and multiple abuses.
  64. 1. List and explain the causes of the Reformation (continued from the previous lesson).
    (8 things)
    • 1. Corruption in the priesthood
    • 2. movable type printing
    • 3. Renaissance popes more like princes
    • 4. rising nationalism
    • 5. crusades
    • 6. year of jubilee;
    • 7. indulgences
    • 8. provisions and expectancies
  65. 2. Describe the nature of “years of jubilee” and how they enriched the church.
    3.2A The first of these was declared in 1300. Recently again in AD 2000, and every 25 yrs hereafter. Boniface VIII (one of the weakest popes) declared that subjection to the Pontiff was necessary for salvation, due to repeated challenges by monarchs. A desperate move to consolidate power. Claim was that the righteous who visited shrines of St. Peter and St. Paul could obtain a plenary indulgence for sins, both temporal and eternal.

    The Jubilee, begun in 1343, was renewed 46 yrs later; then 33 yrs later, then reduced again to 25 yrs. (last celebrated in 2000). Special doors,beautifully carved, are opened only on Years of Jubilee, simultaneously at other locations throughout Rome. Luther observed in Smalkald articles that the Jubilee year was invented when indulgences became profitable; including their hastening and multiplying the jubilee years, as well as masses for the dead. Money was the issue that governed the church's behavior.
  66. 3. Explain how the Roman hierarchy exploited “appeals” to their advantage.
    When churchmen had a conflict, sometimes they would appeal to Rome to resolve it. Rome would typically rule in favor of the first to appeal, which strengthened its hand and control. Rome in so doing fosters an animosity to civil, local, and religious authority. The accumulation of these abuses prepared people for an alternative. Corruption ensues: renaissance popes act more like princes; popes are short-lived. Church increasingly viewed through the lens of money. Quote by Juan de Valdez (brother of Charles V's secretary): lamented that one could get no services from the church except by money: Paradise is shut up from them that have no money...
  67. Lesson 4
    1. List and explain the causes of the Reformation (continued from previous lesson).
    • 4.1A:
    • 1. Corruption in the priesthood
    • 2. movable type printing
    • 3. Renaissance popes more like princes
    • 4. rising nationalism
    • 5. crusades
    • 6. year of jubilee;
    • 7. indulgences
    • 8. provisions and expectancies
  68. 2. Describe how Dante, Chaucer, diverse new reform movements, and Erasmus raised early voices for the reform of the church.
    4.2A: In the 14th century, Dante in his Divine Comedy consigned Pope Nicholas IV to hell, describing him as corrupt and avaricious. Chaucer shortly thereafter in his “Pardoner’s Tale” (of the Canterbury Tales) portrays a granter of indulgences as thoroughly corrupt; one who knew the taverns and the barmaids well. Reform movements also arose within the Catholic church among the priestly orders, and even lay groups arose calling for reformatio. Erasmus contributed by editing a Greek text of the scriptures known as the Textus Receptus. He also criticized the church with his work In Praise of Folly, which in folly form he exposes many inconsistencies, such as many who had taken vows of celibacy, yet practiced little chastity.
  69. 3. Explain how the Crusades and the Renaissance contributed to the coming of the Reformation.
    Classical learning from the east re-entered the West slowly by the Crusades. Advances in the Renaissance (such as languages and learning) facilitated the Reformation. More educated laity began to challenge RCC teaching. For example; when one of Luther’s colleagues heard Copernicus, Luther scoffed at a scientific notion that seemed to contradict the Bible (citing Joshua’s long day).
  70. 4. Explain how moveable-type printing facilitated the coming of the Reformation.
    Johnn Gutenberg, a goldsmith by trade, developed moveable type printing. While the RCC initially sought to control printing through licensing, the printing press became a formidable force for dissemination of ideas and change. Direct results were that literacy rates rose; closer examinations of the church ensued; and evaluation according to the Bible increasingly became the standard.
  71. 5. Describe how colonialism and the growth of the middle class contributed to the development of the Reformation.
    Discovery of new lands and trade fuels an economic boom. Imports increase demand; and a land-based economy becomes a currency-based economy.
  72. 6. Describe how nationalism contributed to the development of the Reformation.
    While in that day it was far from full-blown through the Continent, incipient nationalism weakened the Catholic church’s power. Kings resent papal control upon their people; and citizens question the flow of revenue that always seems to go out of their country toward Rome. Even within Catholicism competition arose between Roman, Anglo, Gallic, and Spanish Catholics.
  73. 7. Relate the different meanings of the term catholic.
    • Taken from the Gk kathalou (Acts 4.18), the term means “according to the whole.”
    • In its Latin form, katholikos [catholicus] means “general” or “universal” as opposed to specific or individual.
  74. 8. Explain why the church began to use the term Catholic.
    • · Because church leaders sought to establish norms to govern doctrine and practice.
    • · Because to the church "according to the whole" was [understood to be] the church "according to the total witness of all the apostles" (Gonzalez, 1.66)
    • · Because of the increase of creeds, a recognized canon, and a growing belief in apostolic succession
    • · Because non-Catholics were considered false teachers (heretics)
Card Set
CH 602 Test 1
L 1