DOL part 3

  1. Given the obvious constraints of being stationary;
    1.organisms use ______ to extend body for greater access to resources
    2. use_____ _______ that enhance access to energy sources (increase ____ _____ or add _____ _____)
    3. use energy sources that are more readily _______.
    • 1. growth
    • 2. modified structures (surface area, filtering mechanisms)
    • 3. available
  2. Herbivores and carnivores low on the food chain are usually inc constant motion to ensure they acquire sufficient energy from a ____ ____ source.

    Higher level carnivores do not nave to be in constant motion because they retain _____ _____ per _____.
    • lower quality
    • higher energy return food source
  3. Strategies carnivores use to get prey.
    • ambush
    • stalk and trap
    • search and pursue
  4. Charecteristics of Water (6)
    • high specific heat
    • high surface tension
    • high heat of vaporization
    • solid form is less dense
    • great solubility
  5. Diffusion
    the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
  6. Osmosis
    diffusion of molecules through a ______ ______ from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides are equal
    semipermeable membrane
  7. Freshwater has 0% salt.
    Saltwater has _% salinity or greater.
    ____ is in teh middle.
    • 3
    • Brackish
  8. When organisms have lower concentrations of water than the environment they are in; 1. they maintain _____ ______ w/environment via ____ _____ of solutes across a _____. 2. ____ ____ help withstand internal pressure of water. 3. Water is forced out using _____ _____.
    • 1. isotomic balance, active transport, membrane.
    • 2. cell walls
    • 3. contractile vacuole
  9. Unicellular strategies in water:
    _______ conform to the surrounding environments water.
    _______ use active transport to maintain osmotic pressure and keep the organisms fluid from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
    _______ are used to deal w/saltwater and metabolic processes.
    • Osmoconformer (passive isotonic balance)
    • Osmoregulators
    • Enzymes
  10. Mulitcellular organisms regulate water via
    ____ ____
    counter intake w. high amnt of ______.
    Sponges have _____ _____.
    • cell walls
    • dilute (urine)
    • contractile vacuols
  11. Multicellular in saltwater (problem is ____ ____ in, then out)
    -could be an Osmo______.
    -perform ____ _____ across external membranes.
    -____ amnts of ____ urine.
    -less ______ external barriers.
    -drink salt water using specialized glands to extract salt.
    • higher concentration
    • conformer
    • active transport
    • low, concentrated
    • permeable
  12. Strategies used by terrestrial multicellular organisms (6)
    • -just chill in a moist enviro
    • -have modified skin or external barrier
    • -have a water retention mechanism
    • -intake more water than is lost
    • -have a dormant stage
  13. If organism is in a moist environment, organisms with more permeable external barriers and limited abilities to use other strategies must position themselves in a moist environment with high moisture content that favor water retention is very important.
  14. a _____ _____/cuticle will lessen ______ in ivertebrates
    • hardened exoskeleton
    • dessication
  15. ____ _____ skin is characterized by water diffusing in and out of the body, skin must retain ______. Also, ____ is used for moisture and an additional barrier.
    • Semi-permeable
    • moisture
    • mucus
  16. ______ skin is characterized by have a barrier for diffusion, great overall protection, but requires internal _____ and _____ structures/mechanisms. Can live in a wide range of environments.
    • Impermeable
    • supporting and regulating
  17. Plants use a waxy ____ that covers exposed "green" epidermal tissues. Also use a thick bark layer as modified skin.
  18. _______(controlled guard cells) used to allow gas exchange, this causes _% of the water to leave through _______. Also closing them, will help control water loss on a short term basis.
    • Stomata
    • 90
    • transpiration
  19. Osmosis
    Opens and closes stomata (diffusion takes no energy)
  20. When stomata have ____ _____ ____ they bulge and stoma open, and low water content they close.
    high water content
  21. Transpiration
    • loss of H20 through leaves
    • increases with temp
    • stoma may close at higher temps
    • desert plants (only open stomata at night)
  22. Internal ____ ____ _____ keep water recycling w/in the organism. This involves a ___ ___ for efficient, targeted movement of fluids. Involve a filter/___ ___ mechanism that includes the vascular system, regulates chemical/hydraulic systems or a complex _____ _____.
    • water retention mechanisms
    • piping system
    • water recapture
    • circulatory system
  23. In order to maintain homeostasis in water balance organisms must actively regulate both _____ and _____ of fluids.
    volume and composition
  24. The kidney uses a _____ so that the blood goes into capsule and works via diffusion and osmosis.
  25. Excretion of ammonia, less energy to excrete
  26. Uric acid is exreted and water is reabsorbed. This takes more energy to excrete.
  27. Ureatelism
    excretion of urea
  28. In addition to exretory systems and a modifies external barrier, this is another internal water retention mechanism..
  29. Root hairs and cellular projection of the epidermis creates a collectively large ____ ____ for water intake
    surface area
  30. Integuments (mouth, sweat glands, pooping)
    animals can still lose water
  31. What has an impact on the internal water retention mechanisms?
    activity rate, time, location, and environment
Card Set
DOL part 3
Unit 4