Given the obvious constraints of being stationary;
1.organisms use ______ to extend body for greater access to resources
2. use_____ _______ that enhance access to energy sources (increase ____ _____ or add _____ _____)
3. use energy sources that are more readily _______.
- 1. growth
- 2. modified structures (surface area, filtering mechanisms)
- 3. available
Herbivores and carnivores low on the food chain are usually inc constant motion to ensure they acquire sufficient energy from a ____ ____ source.
Higher level carnivores do not nave to be in constant motion because they retain _____ _____ per _____.
- lower quality
- higher energy return food source
Strategies carnivores use to get prey.
- stalk and trap
- search and pursue
Charecteristics of Water (6)
- high specific heat
- high surface tension
- high heat of vaporization
- solid form is less dense
- great solubility
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
diffusion of molecules through a ______ ______ from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides are equal
Freshwater has 0% salt.
Saltwater has _% salinity or greater.
____ is in teh middle.
When organisms have lower concentrations of water than the environment they are in; 1. they maintain _____ ______ w/environment via ____ _____ of solutes across a _____. 2. ____ ____ help withstand internal pressure of water. 3. Water is forced out using _____ _____.
- 1. isotomic balance, active transport, membrane.
- 2. cell walls
- 3. contractile vacuole
Unicellular strategies in water:
_______ conform to the surrounding environments water.
_______ use active transport to maintain osmotic pressure and keep the organisms fluid from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
_______ are used to deal w/saltwater and metabolic processes.
- Osmoconformer (passive isotonic balance)
Mulitcellular organisms regulate water via
counter intake w. high amnt of ______.
Sponges have _____ _____.
- cell walls
- dilute (urine)
- contractile vacuols
Multicellular in saltwater (problem is ____ ____ in, then out)
-could be an Osmo______.
-perform ____ _____ across external membranes.
-____ amnts of ____ urine.
-less ______ external barriers.
-drink salt water using specialized glands to extract salt.
- higher concentration
- active transport
- low, concentrated
Strategies used by terrestrial multicellular organisms (6)
- -just chill in a moist enviro
- -have modified skin or external barrier
- -have a water retention mechanism
- -intake more water than is lost
- -have a dormant stage
If organism is in a moist environment, organisms with more permeable external barriers and limited abilities to use other strategies must position themselves in a moist environment with high moisture content that favor water retention is very important.
a _____ _____/cuticle will lessen ______ in ivertebrates
- hardened exoskeleton
____ _____ skin is characterized by water diffusing in and out of the body, skin must retain ______. Also, ____ is used for moisture and an additional barrier.
______ skin is characterized by have a barrier for diffusion, great overall protection, but requires internal _____ and _____ structures/mechanisms. Can live in a wide range of environments.
- supporting and regulating
Plants use a waxy ____ that covers exposed "green" epidermal tissues. Also use a thick bark layer as modified skin.
_______(controlled guard cells) used to allow gas exchange, this causes _% of the water to leave through _______. Also closing them, will help control water loss on a short term basis.
Opens and closes stomata (diffusion takes no energy)
When stomata have ____ _____ ____ they bulge and stoma open, and low water content they close.
high water content
- loss of H20 through leaves
- increases with temp
- stoma may close at higher temps
- desert plants (only open stomata at night)
Internal ____ ____ _____ keep water recycling w/in the organism. This involves a ___ ___ for efficient, targeted movement of fluids. Involve a filter/___ ___ mechanism that includes the vascular system, regulates chemical/hydraulic systems or a complex _____ _____.
- water retention mechanisms
- piping system
- water recapture
- circulatory system
In order to maintain homeostasis in water balance organisms must actively regulate both _____ and _____ of fluids.
volume and composition
The kidney uses a _____ so that the blood goes into capsule and works via diffusion and osmosis.
Excretion of ammonia, less energy to excrete
Uric acid is exreted and water is reabsorbed. This takes more energy to excrete.
excretion of urea
In addition to exretory systems and a modifies external barrier, this is another internal water retention mechanism..
Root hairs and cellular projection of the epidermis creates a collectively large ____ ____ for water intake
Integuments (mouth, sweat glands, pooping)
animals can still lose water
What has an impact on the internal water retention mechanisms?
activity rate, time, location, and environment