Polyunsaturated fats of nutritional interest may have:
A. as many as six double bonds
B. one double bond
C. no more than three double bonds
D. either two or three double bonds
Carbon-carbon double bonds in the
A. result in a kinking of the fatty acid into a U-shape
B. are required to create saturated fatty acids
C. extend the fatty acid into a linear shape
D. are the hallmark of saturated fatty acids
Which fatty acid is considered essential and must be supplied by the diet?
A. oleic acid
B. omega-9 fatty acid
C. alpha-linolenic acid
D. gamma-linolenic acid
What lipids are a major component of cell and organelle membranes?
B. free fatty acids
Triacylglycerols with unsaturated fatty acids tend to be _____ at room temperature.
A. liquid oils
C. non-esterified fats
D. solid fats
What is the most common lipid characterized by a cyclized internal segment in a 20 carbon chain?
Cholesterol serves as a precursor for _____.
B. estrogens and androgens
Sphingomyelins serve which of the following functions?
A. source of stored energy
B. constituent of myelin sheaths
C. precursor for long chain n-3 fatty acids
D. constituent of cell and organelle membranes
Pancreatic lipase is characterized by which of the following statements?
A. It requires an alkaline environment for optimal activity
B. It hydrolyzes short-chain fatty acids from the sn-3 position
C. It can readily penetrate milk fat globules without bile salt stabilization
D. It is highly stable in an acid environment
Undigested lipid delays the rate of emptying of stomach contents, thus:
A. speeding fat digestion and increasing absorption
B. enhancing gastric motility
C. suppressing GIP and secretin
D. delaying hunger
What is the carrier for long-chain dietary fatty acids in circulation?
Apolipoproteins function to:
A. prevent recognition by receptors on cells, thus delaying removal
B. decrease the density of the lipoprotein
C. destabilize circulating lipoproteins in the blood to promote removal
D. stimulate enzymatic reactions which regulate the metabolic functions of lipoproteins
Which of the following lipoproteins are normally present in blood in the greatest quantity during the fasting state?
Which of the following lipoproteins is the major carrier of cholesterol away from tissues for excretion by the liver?
LDL binds to which of the following cells with high affinity and specificity?
A. mutant cells
D. kidney cells
What enzyme is inhibited by drug therapy to decrease serum cholesterol?
A. Lipoprotein lipase
C. HMG CoA reductase
D. Delta-9 desaturase
Which of the following fatty acids is least likely to promote heart disease?
A. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
B. stearic acid
C. palmitic acid
D. myristic acid
unsaturated fatty acids elevate serum LDL while decreasing HDL and are therefore likely to:
A. promote Alzheimer's disease
B. promote colon cancer
C. promote heart disease
D. inhibit colon cancer
Carnitine is the carrier molecule needed for:
A. shuttling NADH into the mitochondria to produce ATP
B. cholesterol synthesis
C. removal of acetyl CoA from the mitochondria for fatty acid synthesis
D. mitochondrial membrane transport of fatty acids and their CoA derivatives
Beta-oxidation in the mitochondria produces _____.
B. acetyle CoA
Which of the following fatty acids would yield the greatest energy upon complete oxidation?
A. oleic acid
B. linoleic acid
C. stearic acid
D. alpha-linolenic acid
Cholesterol is produced from:
D. amino groups
The fatty acid synthase system is involved in creating:
A. fatty acids from cholesterol
B. triacyglyceride from glycerol and fatty acids
C. acetyl CoA from any even-numbered fatty acid
D. palmitate from acetyl CoA
What is the most important unsaturated fatty acid serving as a precursor for eicosanoids that antagonize those made from an omega-6 fatty acid precursor?
A. linoleic acid
B. eicosapentaenoic acid
C. arachidonic acid
D. oleic acid
Leukotrienes are hormone-like substances made from:
A. stearic acid
B. myristic acid
C. arachidonic acid
D. palmitic acid
Prostaglandins exhibit a range of physiological actions including:
A. enhanced fatty acid synthesis
B. enhanced fatty acid mobilization
C. effects on visual development
D. effects on the immune system
Which hormone inhibits hormone-sensitive triacylglycerol lipase found in adipose tissue cells?
What organ provides the major site for lipoprotein formation from endogenously produced lipids?
What is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease?
A. high levels of circulating LDL
B. primarily VLDL and IDL
C. high levels of circulating HDL
D. high levels of LDL receptors
The mechanism by which orlistat decreases caloric consumption is by:
A. inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity
B. decreasing mRNA for pancreatic lipase
C. being indigestible by pancreatic lipase
D. being made from sucrose, thus having only 4 kcal/g
Human Nutrition Ch 5 - Lipids