Surgery: Signs

  1. Ballance's sign
    • Dullness to percussion in the left flank with resonance in the right flank
    • Seen in splenic rupture/hematoma
  2. Battle's sign
    • Ecchymosis over the mastoid process
    • Seen in basilar skull fracture
  3. Beck's triad, seen in cardiac tamponade
    • JVD
    • Decreased or muffled heart sounds
    • Decreased blood pressure
  4. Bergman's triad, seen in fat emboli syndrome
    • Mental status change
    • Petechiae (often on axilla or thorax)
    • Dyspnea
  5. Blumer's shelf
    Metastatic disease to pouch of Douglas, creates a "shelf" that is palpable on physical exam
  6. Boas' sign
    Right subscapular pain, results from cholelithiasis
  7. Borchardt's triad, seen in gastric volvulus
    • Emesis followed by no emesis
    • Epigastric distention
    • Failure to pass a NG tube
  8. Carcinoid triad
    • Flushing
    • Diarrhea
    • Right heart failure
  9. Cullen's sign
    Bluish discoloration around periumbilical region due to retroperitoneal hemorrhage that passed through the fascial planes to the anterior abdo wall
  10. Cushing's triad (increased intracranial pressure)
    • Hypertension
    • Bradycardia
    • Irregular respiration
  11. Fothergill's sign
    Used to differentiate an intra-abdo mass from an abdo wall mass. If mass is felt when the abdo muscles are tense, it's on the wall.
  12. Grey Turner's sign
    Flank bruising in a patient with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, due to dissecting blood from retroperitoneum
  13. Kehr's sign
    Severe left shoulder pain in patients with splenic rupture
  14. Laplace's law
    • wall tension=pressure x radius
    • (thus, colon perforates at cecum, due to increased radius --> increased tension)
  15. Rule of 2s for Meckel's diverticulum
    • Seen in 2% of the population
    • 2% symptomatic
    • Occur within 2 feet of ileocecal valve
  16. Murphy's sign
    Cessation of inspiration during palpation of RUQ; indicates acute cholecystitis
  17. Raccoon eyes
    Black eyes on both sides, seen in basilar skull fracture
  18. Reynaud's pentad, seen in suppurative cholangitis
    • Fever
    • Jaundice
    • RUQ pain
    • Mental status changes
    • Shock/sepsis
  19. Rovsing's sign
    LLQ pain, seen in appendicitis
  20. Saint's triad
    • Cholelithiasis
    • Hiatal hernia
    • Diverticular disease
  21. Sister Mary Joseph sign
    Metastatic tumor to umbilical lymph node(s)
  22. Virchow's triad (risk factors for thrombosis)
    • Stasis
    • Abnormal endothelium
    • Hypercoagulability
  23. Whipple's triad, seen in insulinoma
    • Hypoglycemia (under 50)
    • CNS and vasomotor symptoms (syncope, diaphoresis)
    • Relief of symptoms with glucose administration
Card Set
Surgery: Signs