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Quiz 7: GLBT
- 1. According to your reading, more than one in five same-sex couples were raising children, and most of these children are
- (c) Natural born children or step-children (70%)
- 2. According to chapter 28 of the Coontz et al.’s text, studies show that among childless gay men and lesbians they
- (a) Want to have children.
- 3. According to your reading, what accounts for the lack of an accurate count of gay and lesbian parents in the United States?
- (d) Fear of losing custody and/or visitation rights
- 4. According to your reading, most research comparing gay/lesbian parents with heterosexual parents found that
- (d) There is no difference between heterosexual parents and gay/lesbian parents in most measures.
- 5. According to the reading, research in general shows
- that children of gay and lesbian parents are…?
- (d) Not different from children of heterosexual parents
Gay and Lesbian Families
- Issues facing GLBT ind'ls and families:1. struggle with heterocentrism
- 2. Families where children were born or adopted while
- involving in a heterosexual relationship before coming out vs. families with well-established gay or lesbian identities prior to bearing or adopting children.
- 3. identity issue
- 4. coming out is a vital and coninual process (life course)
- 5. degree of support plays role of disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends
- Same sex couples and legal marriages in US:
- Singer v. Hara: U.S. Supreme Court decision defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman but allowed each state to create, interpret, and enforce laws regarding marriage and families.
- 1996, the U.S. passed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) declaring marriage to be a “legal union of one man and one woman.”
- US. states offer legal Marriage: Massa, Calif, Conn, Iowa, Vermon, Maine, New Hamp, Wash (8) domestic partnership: Nevada, Oregon, Wash
- Arguments for legal marriage as heterosexual only:~all religious oppose legal same sex marriage
- ~ “attempt to deconstruct traditional morality
- ~history roots
- ~good for raising families
- ~weaken institution of marriage
- ~open door to all sorts of people
- ~unnecessary already have civil unions
- Arguments for legal same sex marriage:
- ~violates US Constitution
- ~yield economic advantage (social sec, inheritance, immigrant spouces/citizen)
- ~domestic/civil unions = second class citizens
- Gay couples/ Hetero couples:
- No differ: psych adju, neuroticism, agreeable/ conscient, intimacy
- Diff: opneness, relationship style, conflict resolution, social support
Gender, Class and Race in Diverse Families
- Variations in gender roles:
- ~are learned rather than innate
- ~Global Gender Gap Index measures women's status and quality of life in 130 countries
- ~GGGI key indicators: economic participation and dev, ecu attainment, pol empowerment, health and survival
- ~top 10 coutries: Norway, Finland, Sweden, Icelan, New Z, Phill, Denmar, Ire, Nether, Latvia
- High rank countries: US, canada, S AFri, Euro countires, Austr, S. Korea
- Feminist Theories:
- motherhood: dichotomous split (public and private), men set up up barriers to provide unequal access to power, prop, and prestige for women
- family life: centrality, normality, visible, uses distintion to legitmize and perpeutate power relations, focus on social action and change
- division of labor at home: women do more work still
- Ch. 10:
- ~motherhood shaped by male dominaiton
- ~gender roles are dichomotous construction of men
- ~women struggle for ind'l autonomy
- ~racial/ethnic women's exp is linked to the sociolcultural concern of racial/ ethnic comm
- Masculinity: socially and culturally constucted:
- distance themselves, successful, assertive, ambitious
Mexican Immigrant Men:
- "New Man" or New Father:
- white, college edu prof, highly involved father, egalitarian ideological construct
diminished patriarchal privileges (spatial mobility, authority in family decision-making process, household labor)
caused by industrialization, based on money, economic factor and achieved statuses
- Max Weber: social class ranking
- market situation: wealth/property, power, prestige
- The top 20% earn about half of the U.S. income. The top
- 40% of upper and middle upper families earn more than 75% of the nation’s income.
- Social Class and Neighborhood:
- poor: dangerous neighborhoods, inner-city schools, deprived of opportunities, poor home envir
- 1. Your reading indicates that despite the popular image
- of the New Man (an emotionally expressive, nurturant, & egalitarian partner), research suggests that
- (a) The New Man is just an ideological construct; it
- doesn’t exit.
- 2. This theory assumes that in every society men set up
- barriers for women to access to power, property, and prestige in order to maintain their domination and control.
- (c) Feminist theory
- 3. The feminist theoretical perspective’s central focus
- is on gender inequality in regards to division of labor in the household. Thus, when applying this theory to minority women, this focus tends to be limited
- (c) Minority women tend to struggle more than gender
- inequality in society
- 4. According to your reading, which ONE of the following is NOT part of the cultural constructions of
- masculinity, especially for Mexican immigrant men?
- (a) Men should be caring and nurturing fathers
- 5. According to your reading (Chapter 20: “Gender
- Displays and Men’s Power”) the domestic gender displays or the relationships between men and women in the family of Mexican immigrant men are
- (b) Becoming more egalitarian
Families in Poverty
lack of absence of essential resources, Webster def: having no money/support, definciency of necessary indgredients, scantiness/ insufficiencey
- Sugrue: Poverty in the Era of Welfare Reform:
- urban America: relocation of production, newly created jobs require degree, skeptical employees, segregation, destabiliizing
- emergence of new urban "underclass" antisocial attitudes
- female-headed households
- Goals of TANF (temp assist to Needy families): jobs, responsiblity, marriage
- Guiding principles:
- programs should be focused, holistic, community bases, integrated to create a system of care
- FIP (McKnight Foundation's Family in Poverty): focus on streght family stability
eligibility, community serves, the program, delivery mechanism, evaluations
flex/ responsiveness, clear prof boundaries, obtaining basic needs, effectively use of info, long-term foundation funding(5+), prof trust, thorough training
Barriers to working with families
- Why focus on barriers to participation?
- research: increase sample size for research and from underrepresented population
- prevention and intervention: increase program participation for "hard to reach" pop, tailor recruiting strategies, leverage more resources to support families (funding)
- Barriers to Participation (from literature):
- intervention assessment: time demands
- time related/ logistic barriers to intervention: day/time, how often/long to meet
- paretn beliefs and attitudes concerning interventions: percieved usefullness/ family risks/ problems
- family member and other social influences: neg reactions support from fam/friends
- sociodemographic-related barriers to intervention: gender diff, parents edu, parents SES
- barriers to participation in initiail assessment
- barriers to participation in the intervention
- family members influence on decision to participate
- sociodemographic factors: invasion of privacy and time demands
- Translate findings into practice:
- program planning: where and when, how long
- recruitment strategies: incentives, target audience
- budget to overcome barriers to paricipation
Quiz # 10
- 1. According to Spoth et al.’s (1996) article on barriers
- to participation, which one of the following reasons was the most frequently cited barrier to participation in the initial assessment?
- (d) Scheduling conflict
- 2. According to Snell-Johns et al.’s (2004) article,
- which one of the following does not belong to the strategies for promoting change?
- (d) Avoid intruding family privacy issues
- 3. According to Snell-Johns et al.’s (2004) article,
- which one of the following does not belong to the strategies for decreasing attrition?
- (d) Require home-visits
- 4. According to Snell-Johns et al.’s (2004) article,
- which one of the following does not belong to the strategies for overcoming barriers to access?
- (d) Providing money as incentives.
- 5. According to your reading, the use of telephone compared to offering transportation and child care was _____ getting parents to attend and complete the program.
- (b) Much more effective of
Solutions to overcome barriers
- Principles of effective prevention programs:
- program design and content: theory driven, sufficient dosage/ intensity, comphrensive, active learning techniques
- program relevance: developmenally appopriate, appropriately timed, most receptive to change, socially and culturally relevant to participants
- program implementation: delivered by well-qualified/ trained support staff, foster safe relationships
- program assessment and quality assurance: well documented, staff committment to program and evaluation
- Strategies for overcoming barriers to access:
- 1. offer transportation/ child care/ low cost services
- 2. use of the telephone (SSSE) much more likely to attend
- 3. provide home based services (higher success rate)
- 4. faciliate self directed (reading materials and workbook schedules (rural familes))and video based interventions: PAW, offers privacy, self pacing, flex scheduling, sign behavioral changes
- 5. use the format of multiple-family groups: build on tradition, include children and others, goal to decrease familyy social isolaiton, expose new skills, (FAST)
- Strategies to decrease attrition:
- 1. decrease time families spend on waiting list to reduce dropout rate
- 2. monitor therapists behaviors and expectations
- 3. offer incentives for atendance
Human services and cultural diveristy
- Why human services should be interested in cultural diversity?
- more likely to work with persons from diff cultures, ethnic minorites interact more and be in poverty more, less likely to seek preventive care due to trust issues
- Assumptions that lead to difficultlies integrating cultural diveristy in family services:
- 1. adapt services to diff people (avoid cookie cutter approach)
- 2. equal opportunity for all---view in context of barriers to equal opportunities (marginalization, classism, prejudice)
- 3. should focus on the ind'l w/problem---focus on a family centered apprach/ comm/ parent direct
- 4. sufficient knowledge aboud family function---false
- 5. nuclear family is still ideal family---false, think beyond household
- 6. staff are objective and well-trained---false, biased with Eurocentric knowledge
- 7. "if we build it, they will come"---false, barriers, stigma or losing face in participating, time service is avail/trans/ staff
- 8. agencies receiving funds use it effectly for desired program---false, may not have infastructure, one size fits all programming strategy, compete for funding