1. Blood Vessels
    • Make up piping for blood flow
    • Run through organs and tissues to supply nutrients and pick up wastes
    • Arteries, capillaries, veins
  2. Vessel Wall Structure
  3. Tunica Intima
    • Endothelium- simple squamos epithelium
    • Subendothelial Layer- loose CT
  4. Tunica Media
    • Smooth muscle (contraction=constriction)
    • Elastin and collagen
  5. Tunica Externa
    • CT- collagen and elastic fibers
    • Protection and strength
  6. Arteries
    • Carry blood away from heart
    • High pressure and flow vessels
    • Deeper location than in veins
    • More smooth muscle than veins
    • Elastic, Muscular, and Arterioles
  7. Elastic Arteries
    • Conducting Arteries
    • Largest near heart
    • Lots of elastin
  8. Muscular Arteies
    • Supply organs, parts of organs, and groups of organs
    • Thickest tunica media
    • Smooth muscle in TM regulates flow
  9. Vasoconstriction
    Contraction of smooth muscle
  10. Vasolidation
    Relaxation of smooth muscle
  11. Muscular Artery
    • Internal Elastic Lumina
    • Smooth muscle
    • External elastic lumina
  12. Arterioles
    • Smallest arteries
    • Diameter regulated by- Local factors and sympathetic NS activity
  13. Capillaries
    • Smallest vessels
    • Single layer endothelial cells, surrounded by basement membrane
  14. Caps and nutrient exchange
    • Lungs- exchange gases (and oxidative tissues)
    • Intestine- exchange digested nutrients
    • Endocrine glands- release hormones
    • Kidney- removes wastes
  15. Capillary Bed
    Network of body's smallest vessels
  16. Metarterioles
    • Intermediate between arteriole and capillary
    • Pre-capillary sphincters control flow
  17. True Capillary
    Gas and nutrient exchange
  18. Thoroughfare channnel
    Intermediate between venule capillary
  19. Capillary Permeability
    • Endothelial cells held together by tight junctions
    • -continuous capillaries: do not have pores
    • -fenestrated capillaries- have pores that span endothelial cells
    • Diffusion through endothelial cell membranes and fenestrations= 2-4 routes of permeability
  20. Veins
    • Take blood TOWARD the heart
    • Low pressure vessels
    • Superfical location
    • Less smooth muscle
    • Thinner walls than arteries
    • Venules, veins
  21. Aids for venous return
    • Valves- blood flow toward heart pushes cucps apart,, and backflow pushes cusps together
    • Body movements- swinging the body moves blood
    • Venous Vasoconstriction- possible, but not same as in arteries
  22. Anastomoses
    • Where vessels unite or interconnect
    • Arterial anastomoses provide collateral channels
    • Venous anastomoses more abundant
  23. Vaso Vasorum
    • Little vessels that supply larger arteries and veins with nutrients
    • Feeds outer half of vessel- in tunica externa
    • Small vessels get full supply from luminal blood
  24. Pulmonary Circuit
    • Pulmonary trunk- artery that takes blood to the lungs, branches into R and L pulmonary arteries
    • Each pulmonary artery branches into lobar arteries, then smaller and smaller until capillaries
  25. Systemic circuit, Arteries
  26. Aorta
    • Ascending- R and L coronary arteries
    • Arch- Brachiocepalic trunk
    • -Right common carotid
    • -Right subclavian
    • Leftcommon carotid, left subclavian
    • Descending- Thoracic aorta, Abdominal aorta
    • -Right common iliac
    • -Left common iliac
  27. Upper Limb
    • Subclavian- underlies clavicle
    • Axillary- supplies breast, shoulder, scapular areas
    • Brachial- Supplies ant/post arm muscles
    • Radial- Supplies lateral forearm
    • Ulnar- supplies medial forearm
    • Palmar Arches- supplies hand
  28. Lower Limb Arteries
    • Common iliac arteries
    • Internal iliac Artery- supplies pelvic region
    • External illiac artery- goes to lower limb
    • Femoral Artery- supplies thigh muscle
    • Popliteal Artery- supplies knee
    • Anterior Tibial Artery- supplies crural region
    • Posterior Tibial Artery- supplies sural region
  29. Systemic veins
    • Differences in Artery and Vein distribution
    • -1 artery leaves, 3 veins enter RA
    • -Arteries deep, veins superficial
    • -Several parallel veins, not 1 large
    • -2 venous drains- Dural Sinuses, Hepatic Portal System
  30. Systemic Veins
    • Superior Vena Cava- Receives blood from body regions superior to diaphragm, L and R Brachiocephalic veins
    • Brachiocephalic Veins- formed by internal jugular and subclavian
    • Internal Jugular- blood from dural sinuses
    • Subclavian- blood from upper limb
    • External Jugular- blood from scalp and parts of face
  31. Systemic Veins
    • Coronary Sinus- Drains blood that supplies heart muscle
    • Inferior Vena Cava- returns blood from areas inferior to diaphragm
    • Common iliac veins- returns blood from lower limbs
  32. Upper Limb Veins
    • Palmar Arches- receive blood from hand
    • Radial Vein
    • Ulnar Vein
    • Brachial Vein
    • Axillary Vein
    • Cephalic vein- joins axillary vein
    • Basilic vein- joins brachial vein at start of axillary
    • Subclavian vein
  33. Lower Limb Veins
    • Anterior tibial vein- from dorsalis pedis
    • Posterior Tibial Vein- from plantar arch
    • Popliteal vein
    • Femoral Vein
    • External iliac vein
    • Internal iliac vein
    • Common iliac vein- empties into inferior vena cava
    • Great Saphenous vein- empties into femoral vein from medial lower leg
  34. Hemorrhoids
    Blood pooling in veins of anal canal
  35. Deep vein Thrombosis
    Clot formation in vein of lower extremity which travels and blocks flow in another vessel
  36. Varicose Veins
    • Faulty venous valves cause blood pooling
    • Common in obesity and pregnancy
  37. Aneurysm
    • Saclike widening of a vessel increasing risk of rupture
    • Very dangerous in brain
  38. Arteriosclerosis
    Pathological thickening and loss of elasticity
  39. Medial Arteriosclerosis
    • Occurs with age
    • Smooth muscle and elastin replaces with fibrous tissue
  40. Atherosclerosis
    • Occurs in tunica media
    • Initially cause by LDL into intimal layer which eventually causes plaque formation
    • Thrombosis forms and can blockk arteries
    • Low fat diet and exercise
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