IB 132 MT2

  1. 1. Somatic nervous system afferents DO NOT carry information from:
    a. nociceptors
    b. temperature receptors
    c. skin mechanoreceptors
    d. muscle mechanoreceptors
    e. baroreceptors
  2. 2. The main function of lateral inhibition is:
    a. to sharpen spatial resolution
    .b. to minimize cross-talk.
    c. to keep the brain from attending to a constant stimulus
    .d. to provide a refractory period.
    e. to avoid over-stimulation.
  3. 3. Cortical association areas are most accurately described as:
    a. places where the kidney’s medulla communicates with its cortex.
    b. areas of the cerebral cortex where one sensory modality is compared to another
    .c. parts of the cerebral cortex that are neither primary motor areas nor primary sensory areas.
    d. parts of the cerebral cortex where complex information processing of a single sensation takes place.
    e. b and d
  4. 4. The mechanism by which people produce smooth muscle contractions at low forces (e.g. for fine force control in their fingers) is
    :a. producing fused tetanus in a few motor units.
    b. producing fused tetanus in several very small motor units.
    c. synchronized activity of a few motor units
    .d. synchronized activity of several very small motor units.
    e. asynchronous activity of several motor units.
  5. 5. The Size Principle states that, as force is increased:
    a. small muscle fibers are recruited first
    b. fatiguable muscle fibers are recruited first
    c. slow muscle fibers are recruited first
    d. small motor neurons are recruited first
    e. all of the above
  6. 6. The largest gland and sex organ in the body is/are:
    a. are the gonads (testes in men and ovaries in women)
    b. the penis in men and clitoris in women
    c. the skind. the heart
    e. the brain
  7. 7. The endocrine system:
    a. releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body
    b. releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs
    c. produces effects that can last for hours, days, or even longer
    d. can alter gene activity of cells
    e. all of the above
  8. 8. Which of the following hormones does NOT act by a second messenger system:
    a. glucagon
    b. epinephrine
    c. growth hormone
    d. testosterone
    e. ACTH
  9. 9. If you were to eat four sugar glazed doughnuts and drink a large Pepsi, which hormone would you expect to be secreted at higher levels:
    a. insulin
    b. epinephrine
    c. glucagon
    d. cortisol
    e. oxytocin
  10. 10. Which of the following characteristics is the same for the nervous and endocrine systems:
    a. they always send one signal to many cells.
    b. they both do more signaling than computation.
    c. responses are always rapid.
    d. they have the same mechanism of signal transmission.
    e. none of the above.
  11. 11. After heart transplantation, B’s heart rate is slower than normal and relies on intrinsic sinus rhythm. If B goes hiking, can his heart rate increase when he climbs hills?
    a. No, the cardiac nerves have been cut and do not regenerate.
    b. No, vagus tone increases.
    c. Yes, from circulating epinephrine
    d. Yes, because of vagal withdrawal
    e. Choices (a) and (d).
  12. 12. The systemic circulation sends blood from the ____ ventricle through all the organs and tissues of the body except the lungs, and then to the ____ atrium.
    a. left, left
    b. right, right
    c. left, right
    d. right, left
    e. all of the above
  13. 13. Structural specializations of cardiac muscle do NOT include:
    a. striations
    b. small cells
    c. intercalated discs
    d. gap junctions
    e. tight junctions
  14. 14. The long refractory period of a cardiac myocyte’s action potential
    a. disallows tetanic contractions of cardiac muscle.
    b. is due to T-type Ca channels.
    c. is due to Na channels that never inactivate.
    d. is due to K channels that are slow to open.
    e. is due to K channels that are slow to close.
  15. 15. Ventricular filling occurs:
    a. during atrial contraction only.
    b. during most of diastole.
    c. during most of systole.
    d. during isovolumetric ventricular contraction.
    e. during isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
  16. 16. Sympathetic and parasympathetic signals modulate heart rate by:
    a. rate coding of the sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the autorhythmic cells
    b. modulating the permeability of autorhythmic cells’ membranes to Ca and Na and K
    c. modulating the sensitivity of F-type channels
    d. modulating the length of the plateau
    e. varying the sensitivity of T and L type calcium channels
  17. 17. The primary means of control of blood mean arterial pressure by the cardiovascular system is:
    a. control of arterial radius
    b. control of arteriole radius
    c. control of capillary radius
    d. all of the above (a, b and c are correct)
    e. control of blood volume
  18. 18. The contractility of smooth muscles is determined by:
    a. rate coding of motor unit action potentials
    b. recruitment
    c. rate coding and recruitment
    d. calcium induced calcium release
    e. ligand binding to receptors on the cell’s membrane
  19. 19. Metabolic activity of tissues/organs leads to increased blood flow by:
    a. increasing blood pressure
    b. increasing plasma volume
    c. increasing local dilators
    d. increasing sympathetic activity
    e. increasing parasympathetic activity
  20. 20. The main reason why flow through the capillaries is slow because:
    a. the capillaries are far from the heart.
    b. the total resistance of all the capillaries is large
    c. the total cross-sectional area of all the capillaries is large
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
  21. 21. The reflex organization of the cardiovascular system is designed principally to maintain
    a. constant oxygen delivery
    b. constant arteriolar resistance
    c. constant systemic arterial pressure
    d. constant cardiac output
    e. constant blood glucose levels.
  22. 22. The effect of parasympathetic nervous stimulation on the heart is:
    a. slowing of the heart
    b. increased activity of the SA node
    c. increased activity of the AV node
    d. increased force of contraction
    e. all of the above
  23. 23. Arterial pressure is NOT directly regulated by
    a. baroreceptors
    b. chemoreceptors
    c. epinephrine
    d. renal control of blood volume
    e. acetylcholine
  24. 24. Baroreceptors are:
    a. neurons in the brain stem
    b. neurons in the medulla oblongata
    c. sensitive to chages in oxygen level
    d. sensitive to changes in arterial pressure
    e. sensitive to changes in Ca ions levels
  25. 25. Most of the energy used by the kidneys is used for:
    a. plasma filtration
    b. Na+ reabsorption
    c. Na+ secretion
    d. K+ secretion
    e. urine concentration
  26. 26. Which of the following contributes directly to the generation of a hypertonic medullary interstitium in the kidney?
    a. active Na+ transport in the descending limb of the Loop of Henle
    b. active water reabsorption in the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle
    c. active Na+ reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule
    d. water reabsorption in the cortical collecting duct
    e. active Na+ transport in the ascending Loop of Henle.
  27. 27. Normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is closest to:
    a. 180 L/min
    b. 1 L/min
    c. 2 L/day
    d. 20 L/day
    e. 200 L/day
  28. 28. Filtered plasma glucose is normally reabsorbed by:
    a. passive diffusion
    b. active transport by glucose transporters
    c. secondary active transport
    d. primary active transport
    e. all of the above
  29. 29. The primary function of the vasa recta is:
    a. to carry O2 to and metabolic products away from the loops of Henle.
    b. to carry water out of the renal cortex and leave solute in the renal medulla.
    c. to produce the concentration difference between the medullary interstitium and the cortical interstitium.
    d. to pump Na out of the ascending limb.
    e. to produce countercurrent flow past the loops of Henle.
  30. 30. Vasopressin (ADH) is released by the pituitary in response to:
    a. decreased blood pressure.
    b. increased osmolarity.
    c. decreased atrial stretch.
    d. all of the above.
    e. none of the above.
  31. 31. The mechanism by which the permeability of the medullary collecting ducts is varied is:
    a. synthesis of new aquaporins.
    b. recruitment of existing aquaporins to the luminal membrane
    c. synthesis of new ATPases and channels
    d. recruitment of existing ATPases and channels to the basilar membrane
    e. none of the above
  32. 32. In the presence of aldosterone, most Na+ reabsorption occurs:
    a. in the proximal tubules
    b. in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
    c. in the distal tubule.
    d. in the cortical collecting ducts.
    e. None of the above – there is no Na reaborption in the absence of aldosterone.
  33. 33. Sympathetic signals to the kidney can cause:
    a. release of renin.
    b. contraction of afferent arteriole smooth muscle.
    c. increased reabsorption of Na+.
    d. decreased GFR.
    e. all of the above.
  34. 34. ANP modulates Na+ filtration and reabsorption by signaling sensation of:
    a. [aldosterone]
    b. [renin]
    c. atrial stretch
    d. plasma [Na]
    e. all of the above
  35. 35. The lungs can influence plasma pH faster than the kidneys can because:
    a. They have more carbonic anyhdrase.
    b. They can change the capacity of the bicarbonate buffering system faster.
    c. They can shift the equilibrium between CO2 and carbonic acid faster.
    d. They can take advantage of the Bohr effect
    .e. They only change it temporarily.
  36. 36. High plasma [H+] and low arterial PCO2 are consistent with
    a. metabolic acidosis
    b. respiratory acidosis
    c. both metabolic and respiratory acidosis
    d. metabolic alkalosis
    e. respiratory alkalosis
  37. 37. Anatomical adaptations that increase ventilation include:
    a. small diffusion distances and large alveolar surface area.
    b. powerful ventilatory muscles and low interpleural pressure.
    c. increased capillarity and mitochondrial mass.
    d. all of the above.
    e. none of the above.
  38. 38. The rhythmic pattern of breathing is caused by:
    a. the diaphragm
    .b. pattern generators in the medulla.
    c. alternating activity of inspiratory and expiratory muscles.
    d. the peripheral nervous system.
    e. the autonomic nervous system.
  39. 39. The partial pressure setpoints for control of breathing refer to arterial partial pressures because:
    a. the partial pressures are biggest in arterial blood
    .b. arterial partial pressures are easier to control.
    c. the baroreceptors are in the arterial part of the circulatory system.
    d. the peripheral chemoreceptors are in the arterial part of the circulatory system.
    e. the central chemorecptors are in the arterial part of the circulatory system.
  40. 40. Concerning anatomy of the breathing system:
    a. the bronchioles are in the “respiratory zone”
    b. the alveolar surface area approximates 1.5 m2
    c. alveoli are in the “conducting zone”
    d. alveoli are typically free of dust particles, pollen and bacteria
    e. exhalation is attributable to contraction of the diaphragm.
  41. 41. Action potential generated by PO2 sensors in the carotid bodies are sent
    a. to the lungs
    b. directly to the diaphragm
    c. to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
    d. to the medulla oblongata
    e. to the somatosensory cortex
  42. 42. Why is alveolar minute ventilation different from pulmonary minute ventilation:
    a. because of the influence of surfactant
    b. they are different because the systems are unrelated
    c. because of dead space ventilation
    d. because of pulmonary compliance
    e. because of changes in pulmonary system pressures during inhalation and exhalation.
  43. 43. Which of the following is NOT involved in asthma?
    a. increased bronchoconstriction
    b. increased airway resistance
    c. inflammation
    d. decreased surfactant secretion
    e. environmental pollutants
  44. 44. Ventilation is normally matched to cellular respiration by:
    a. equilibria between pulmonary capillary PCO2 and PO2 and alveolar PCO2 and PO2
    b. equilibria between capillary PCO2 and PO2 and ECF PCO2 and PO2in systemic circulation
    c. control systems regulating arterial PCO2 and PO2
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
  45. 45. The RDA for carbohydrate
    a. is set to avoid diabetes
    b. is set to meet nutrient needs for the brain
    c. is wrong and one should flow the Atkins diet
    d. is different for men and women
    e. equals the UL for carbohydrate consumption
  46. 46. In the fields of nutrition and metabolism the term “RDA”:
    a. stands for recommended daily allocation
    b. stands for recommended dietary allowance
    c. is a collective term used to describe how dietary recommendations are made
    d. is the same as the “DRI”
    e. none of the above
  47. 47. The RDA for protein:
    a. equals the AI and UL for protein
    b. equals 0.8 g/lb body weight /day
    c. equals 0.8 g/kg body weight/day
    d. differs for men and women
    e. is difficult to meet on a Western diet requiring supplementation.
  48. 48. Why is it necessary to consider physical activity level (PAL) in making dietary recommendations?
    a. because of the losses of electrolytes in sweat during exercise
    b. because PAL effects energy expenditure and balance
    c. because is the component of Total Energy Expenditure over which we have volitional control
    d. because PAL promotes organ-systems health and vigor
    e. choices (b,c, and d).
  49. 49. Most of the fat absorbed in the small intestine enters the
    a. circulatory system via capillaries
    b. lymphatic system via lacteals
    c. nervous system via nerve fibers
    d. musculo-skeletal system via the muscularis mucosa
    e. none of the above
  50. 50. Which sets of cells, or hormones work in a complementary way during the gastric phase of digestion:
    a. leptin and adiponectin
    b. Chief and Parietal cells
    c. pancreatic alpha and beta cells
    d. Somatostatin (S) and GHRH
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IB 132 MT2