1. General Information
    • Erikson's last 4 stages:
    • 5. Identity v. Identity Confusion: adolescence (childhood and marturity, "who am I," KSA-society of peers, Virtue: fidelity)
    • 6. Intimacy v. Isolation: young adulthood (strong friendships such as love and companionship, KSA- lovers, spouces, Virtue: love)
    • 7. Generativity v. Stagnation: adulthood (productive in work and families, lasting contribution, KSA- spouse, children, norms, Virtue: caring)
    • 8. Ego Integrity v. Despair: old age (meaningful or disappointment, NO KSA, Virtue: wisdom)

    Vygotsky’s “scaffolding”: temp support that parents and teachers provide until child is capable of doing task w/o help (any age) learn faster and more competent

    • Baumarind’s parenting style:
    • neglectful/uninvolved:
    • permissive: indulgent, regulate own activites, no control, antisocial, defiant children
    • authoritative: responsiveness, encouragement, self-confident
    • authoritarian: control kids, withdrawn, poor reactions

    Brain development in adolescents:
    grows in spurts to about 25 (blossoming), window of sensitivity, cerebral cortex (infor, memory, reasoning). only 17% of the 100 billion are wired at birth, prefrontal cortex: CEO of brain, last to be wired, not fully wired unitl early 20s
  2. Parent-Adolescent Relationships
    authoritative/ traditional and indifferent parenting styles: high expectations and high warmth, auth: independence, trad: interdependence, ind: neglectful, most common in US, impulsiveness

    • Boys: 6000% increase in testosterone during puberty, hormones trigger amygdala (anger and aggression), need emiotnal regulation
    • Girls: estrogen and progesterone neurotransmitters use serotonin as stabilizer, Ebb and flow of estrogen leads to less stability

    Prefrontal Cortex: under construction, adolescents need warmth and boundaries, parents need to have social support for children

    income factor: low income parents tend to disengage too soon, high income tend to stay over-involved too long
  3. Launching
    How does launching in US differ? offspring does not stay at home for contribute to family income

    historical patterns versus more recent patterns? "emerging adulthood" is lengthened/ indivualized, leaving home no longer measure of adulthood, time of child leaving home has changed, edu worth less, and need to have exp, and debt

    Why have patterns changed? economy (debt, finding jobs, wage not high enough), longer to find life partner, later marriage and babies, temptation to spend, baby boomers can spend on children

    Pos/ Neg: wont take adulthood seriously, time to choose path, more choices today

    • James Marcia’s identity statuses:
    • Achievement: realisitic plans and follow-through, may need support from parents
    • Foreclosure: have plan, avoiding conflict and have someone else choose path they maybe unhappy with
    • Moratorium: no realistic plan, in time will and change, may need support to explore options
    • Diffusion: no reaslistic plan, no plan of action, flounder, parents may need to push
  4. Emerging adulthood
    • How do emerging adults change their family systems? leaves home and role changes, hierarchy changes, change upon return, joins committed relationship, own children
    • 5 features of emerging adulthood?
    • 1. Indentity exploration continues
    • 2. time of instability (due to explorations)
    • 3. self-focused age (not self centered)
    • 4. time of feeling in-between (ambivalence in relationships with parents, striving toward independence)
    • 5. age of possibilities (optimism, move away from family situations)

    Communication patterns of parents and emerging adults: get along easier, parents feel less responsible, less monitor, begin to see parents as people

    • Filial Maturity: dev of less self focus, capability to respond to needs of parent, and be depended on by parents
    • Distancing and comprehending: EA's is a time of distrancing and comprehending
  5. Aging: Sociological View
    What are the reasons for increasing life expectancy and the effects of increasing life expectancy? people living longer, basic hygiene, less poverty, medical tech, elder care, cultural practices lost

    Most people die of chronic illnesses, most people need care at some point

    • Who does the care? women, adult daughters/ in law, spouses and men 25-30% of adult children
    • What is the sandwich generation? traditional, caregivers sandwiched between aging parents and chilren
    • What is a club sandwich? in 50's between aging parents and adult children/ grand kids or 30/40's

    Similarities and differences caring for young versus aging family members? elder care is unexpected crisis event, child care decreases, elder care increases over time, possible ways to care of elders

    • ADLs: Activities of Daily living, everyday functions and activities that people usually do w/o help (dressing/ eating)
    • IADLs: Instrumental activities of daily living, taskes that you must be able to perform in order to live truly live independently, (shopping, laundry)

    Importance of competence and meaningful relationships: born to handle these, important throughout lifespan

    Losses of aging/role reversals: start being treated like a child, adult children become caregivers

    Care recipients want to care for caregivers: elders hide symptoms, doesnt want to be a burden

    How can individuals manage changes in parent-adult child relationships? adapt over time, coping strategies, decreased stress, pos meaning

    Finding positive meaning in caregiving? gratification, satisfaction, reciprocity, friendship, committment, personal growth,
  6. Summary
    • child development:
    • Babies are born with predispositions to some temperament and personality characteristics
    • •Children develop with a mixture predictability and uniqueness
    • •Children are active participants who are very susceptible to their environments
    • •“Goodness of fit:” ideally every child would find a family that was “good fit”

    • What babies need:
    • 1. positive working model of self
    • 2. well developed exectutive functions
    • 3. secure attachment

    • Adolescence:
    • • find the middle ground between allowing too much autonomy and not allowing enough
    • •Adolescents need close attachment and chances to learn life skills
    • •Conflicts are inevitable—parents need to stop the escalation
Card Set
exam 4