Human Bio Exam

  1. Levels of organization
    atoms--molecules--macromolecules--organelles--cells--tissues--organs--organ systems--organism
  2. homeostasis
    Study pg.7 tendency of the body to maintain a stable, balanced internal enviroment. accomplishe through self regulatin adjustments
  3. sagital(median) plane
    cuts the body into left and righ
  4. transverse (horizontal) plane
    cuts the body into top and bottom
  5. coronal (frontal) plane
    cuts the body into front and back
  6. superior
    means that a body part is above another part or is closer to the head
  7. inferior
    means that a body part is below another body part or is toward the feet
  8. anterior
    means toward the front
  9. posterior
    means toward the back
  10. medial
    refers to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal righ and left halves. a body part is medial if it is close to this line than another part
  11. lateral
    means toward the side with respect to the imaginary midline
  12. proximal
    describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment to the trunk thatn another body part
  13. distal
    that a particular body part is farther form a pont of attachemtn to the trunk than another body part
  14. superficial
    situated near the surface
  15. deep
    describes parts that are more internal than superficial parts
  16. body organization
    pg.17 otic, nasal, oral, cervical, acromial, axillary, mammary, brachial, antecubital, abdominal, antebrachial, carpal, palmar, digital, genital, patellar, crural, tarsal, cephalic, forntal, orbital, buccal, mental, sternal, pectoral, umbilical, inguinal, coxal, pedal, occipital, acromial, vertebral, dorsum, cubital, lumbar, scaral, gluteal, perineal, femoral, popliteal, cural, plantar
  17. Cell membrane
    • extremely thin
    • outpouchings and infloding
    • selectively permeable= controls what enters and leaves the cell, allows some things to pass but not others
  18. Rough Er
    where ribosomes are located
  19. smooth Er
    no ribosomes, where lipid synthesis takes place
  20. ribosomes
    manufacture proteins
  21. golgi apparatus
    series of flattened membranous scas near the nucleus. refine, package, and deliver proteins
  22. vesicles
    packages that are exportes by the golgi apparatus
  23. mitochondria
    double layer membrane, where chemical energy is transferred into a useable form
  24. lysosomes
    contain powerful digesting enzymes-breakdown and destroy foreign particles, damaged or worn out cells and cell parts
  25. centrosome
    composed of 2 centiroles.involved in cell reproduction
  26. microfilaments
    involved in cellular movement, as in muscle cells
  27. microtubules
    larger than filaments, maintain shape
  28. nuclesu
    contains genetic material
  29. nucleoulus
    produce ribosomes
  30. chromatin
    loosely coiled fiber in nucleoplasm. forms chromosomes, composed ofDNA
  31. Diffusion
    molecules move spontaneously form an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  32. faciliatated diffusion
    molecules diffuse through a membrane by means of a carrier molecule transports
  33. osmosis
    the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
  34. Osmotic Pressure
    pressure to stop osmosis
  35. hypertonic solution
    conc. of solute particles is greater outside the cell
  36. hypotonic solution
    conc. of solute particles is lower outside the cell
  37. isotonic solution
    conc. of solute particles is the same inside and outside the cell
  38. filtration
    molecules are forced thought a membrane by hydrostatic pressure
  39. active transport
    molecules are moved against the concentration gradient. this requires the use of cellular energy, also usually involves ATP
  40. exocytosis
    transpot fo particles out of the cell
  41. endocytosis
    transport of particles into the cell
  42. Life cycle of cell
    • Mitosis (nuclear division)
    • cytoplasmic division (cytoskinesis)
    • interphase (growth)
    • differentiation- cells become specialized developing characteristics in structure and function
  43. Mitosis stages
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • anaphas
    • telophase
    • cytokinesis
  44. prophase
    • chromosomes visible
    • centrioles migrate toward the poles of the cell
    • spindle fibers begin to form
    • nucleoulus has completley disappeared
    • nuclear membrane is starting to disappear
  45. metaphase
    • chromosomes lined on the equator
    • spindle fibers attached to the centromere
  46. anaphase
    chromatids seperate and moce to oppostie poles
  47. telophase
    • chromosomes unwinding
    • spindle fibers begin to disappear
    • nuclear membrane is reforming around chromosomes
    • cytoplasm begins to pinch
  48. cytokinesis
    • division of the cytoplasm
    • divided organelles
  49. cell differentiation
    occurs as cells multiply and prganism develops and grows
  50. simple squamous
    • single layer of flattened cells
    • nucleus in middle
    • diffusion
    • filtrations
    • air sacs in lung and walls of capillaries
  51. simple cuboidal
    • single layer
    • cube shape (more rounded)
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • kidneys
    • tubules
    • ducts
    • ovarie coverings
  52. simple columnar
    • single layer
    • tall, rectangular
    • goblet cells
    • microvilli
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • digestive tract
    • uterus
  53. pseudostratified columnar
    • single layer
    • uneven nuclei
    • layered appearance
    • may have goblet cells, cilia
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • lining air passages
    • tubes of respiratory
  54. stratified squamos
    • multilayers squamos
    • outer layer of skin
    • look cuboidal at bottom
    • protection
    • skin
    • mouth
  55. stratified cuboidal
    • multiple layers of simple cuboidla
    • outerlayed more flattned, dark nucleus
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • kidneys
    • tubules
    • ducts
    • ovarie coverings
  56. stratified columnar
    • one layer of cuboidal cells under the columnar cells
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • digestive tract
    • uterus
  57. transitional
    • stretchable
    • block diffusion
    • urinary bladder
  58. loose
    • fibroblasts
    • gel-like matrix
    • blood vessels throughout
    • binds skin to underlying organs
    • fills spaces
    • beneath most epithelium
  59. adipose
    • loose conn.
    • adipocytes: fat cells
    • nucles pushed up against cell membrane
    • cushion, store, energy, maintain body heat
    • beneath skin, around organs and joints
  60. dense (fibrous)
    • closely packed, collagenous fibers
    • fine netword of elastic fibers
    • all in 1 direction
    • few cells
    • strong
    • binds bone to bone
    • bidns muscle to bone
    • tendons
    • ligaments
  61. hyaline cartilage
    • matrix-glassy look
    • fine collagenous fiber
    • provide shape
    • bone growth
    • ends of joints
    • nose
    • respiratory passages
  62. elastic cartilage
    • mostly elastic fibers
    • flexible
    • provide framework
    • external ear
    • larynx
  63. fibrocartilage
    • contains collagenous fibers
    • shock absorber
    • tough
    • intervertebral disks
    • minisci
    • pelvic girdle
  64. Osteocyte (Bone)
    • rigid conn. tissue due to mineral salts
    • calcium
    • matrix- collagenou fibers
    • support all body structures
    • protexts
    • creates blood cells in marrow
    • strong minerals
  65. blood
    • matric-plasma
    • red bllood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets
    • exchange substandes between bod cell and w/ external enviorment
    • maintain homeostasis
  66. skeletal
    • long, cylindrical, thread like, multinucleit, striated
    • move the skeltion facial expressions
    • voluntary
    • attached to skeleton
  67. smooth
    • nonstriated
    • single nuclei
    • spindle shape
    • involuntary
    • hollow internal organs
  68. cardiac
    • striated and branch
    • joined end to end
    • connected by inercalated disks
    • one nucleus
    • heart
  69. nervous tissue
    • made of nuerons
    • neuroglia cells
    • send and recieve nerve impulses
    • brain
    • spinal chord
    • peripheral nerves
  70. cutaneous membrane
    • top-epidermis
    • bottom-dermis
  71. synovial membrane
    • entirel conn. tissue
    • produce synovial fluid
    • lubricate, reduce friction
    • surrounding joints
  72. serous membrane
    • layer of epithelial tissue
    • layer of conn. tissure
    • produce serous fluid
    • lubricate, reduce frictions
    • lines internal ventral cavaties
    • lines surface of organs
  73. mucous membrane
    • layer of epithelial
    • layer of conn.
    • protect
    • lubricate
    • secrete
    • absorb
    • respiratory and digestive tracts
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Human Bio Exam
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