The rate of ice accumulation on the aircraft is such that deicing/ anti-icing equipment fails to reduce or control the hazard.
Ice collects faster on the tail because of the smaller surface area in the slip stream, compared to the wing.
What are the three indications of severe icing?
1. Extensive ice accreted on the airframe in areas not normally seen to collect ice.
2. Accumulation of ice on the upper surface of the wing past the protected area.
3. Accumulation of ice on the spinner farther aft than normal.
If severe icing is encountered, what should you do?
Immediately request priority handling from ATC to facilitate a route or altitude change to exit icing conditions.
Indications of a tail stall.
Typically occurs during flap extension, near the higher speed limit for that flap setting.
Easier to push the controls forward, harder to pull them back.
Tail stall recovery.
Pull back on yoke to reduce the AOA on the horizontal stabilizer and undo what you may have just done (retract flaps to previous setting) and land with reduced flap setting if able.
Lost Comms: Route and Altitude
Altitude, the highest of:
Define "Marginal Weather"
Marginal Weather is defined by meeting two criteria:
1. When the destination is forecast AT the ETA, to include conditional remarks, to be within 1/2sm and 100ft of the LOWEST authorized minimums;
2. When the first alternate is forecast AT the ETA, to include conditional remarks, to be within 1/2sm and 100ft of the LOWEST authorized minimums.
GLA is allowed to dispatch under IFR when conditional remarks in a one time increment of the forecast states that the weather at the destination, alternate, or both could be below the authorized weather minimums when other times of the forecast state that conditions will be at or above the authorized minimums.
Destination must not be less than half of the lowest visibility for the IAP expected to be used.
First alternate must not be less than half of the alternate ceiling AND visibility.
Second alternate must be at or above the alternate ceiling AND visibility.
Use of Portable Oxygen Concentrators (POC's)
1. Must be battery powered,
2. Passenger must have doctors note available to the crew,
3. The POC must be one listed in FOM 10.7.3.
" * "
* = frequency is partime
" 2.5 "
2.5 on the chart means frequency 122.5
capitalized and lowercase
Capitalized are the place name.
Lowercase is the airport name.
NOTE: Elevation and longest runway also in the airport information block.
Requirements to descend below MDA/ DH
1. Aircraft continuously in a position to land in the touchdown zone using normal maneuvers and rates of descent.
2. Flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the IAP being used.
3. At least one of the following visible:
a. The approach light system; may descend below 100 above the TDZ only is the red side row bars or red terminating bars are visible.
c. Threshold markings,
d. Threshold lights,
g. Touchdown zone,
h. Touchdown zone markings,
i. Touchdown zone lights,
k. Runway markings,
l. Runway lights.
What is TIP with regards to radar?
TIP= Treat Identification Position; used to place the bottom of the radar beam parallel to the earths surface.
1. Select radar to 25nm range.
2. Compute current AGL
3. Lower radar tilt until you begin to paint the ground at a range equal to your AGL altitude.
4. Note degrees of tilt.
5. Then add 10 degrees to tilt.
What is zero tilt with regards to radar?
Zero tilt places the center of the radar beam parallel to the earths surface.
1. Compute TIP.
2. Tip tilt minus 4 degrees (radar beam is 8 degrees wide).
Restrict or Suspension of Operations
1. Vis below landing mins
2. Severe icing enroute
3. NIL braking action
4. Heavy snow, ice pellets, moderate or grater freezing rain.
5. Heavy convective activity
6. Runway closures that would make landing unsafe.
7. Crosswinds that exceed limitations
8. Microbursts and LLWS
9. Changes to runway length
10. Nav or comm aid failures
What if bags are in the cargo area and a security sweep needs to be done?
The bags can remain on the airplane without further screening.
AOSSP- Aircraft Operator Standard Security Program
Standard procedure by which passengers are screened by TSA and boarded onto the aircraft.
TFSSP- Twelve Five Standard Security Program
Standard procedure by which passengers and bags are not screened prior to boarding. Must be reverse screened when going into a sterile area (ie: DEN).
High Mins CA restriction
Must add 100' and 1/2 mile (or RVR equivalent) to approach mins for the first 100 hrs. Can reduce required hours by 50% by adding a landing per each hour, only if pilot has previous 100 hrs of 121 PIC.
What is a pre-takeoff check and when is it performed?
Its a check of the aircraft's representative surface (outboard 2 feet of wing) for frozen contaminants before the hold overtime has expired.
What is a pre-takeoff CONTAMINATION check and when is it conducted?
Its a check to verify the aircrafts wings, control surfaces, and other critical surfaces are free of frost, ice and snow conducted AFTER the hold over time has expired and within 5 minutes of takeoff.
How do you recognize loss of deice fluid effectiveness?
Snow accumulation, dulling of surface reflectivity, inability to see rivets, paint lines or other markings.
Unaccompanied Minors: rules and ages
0-4: not accepted for travel,
5-7: accepted for travel on direct flights without plane change,
7-11: accepted for travel on direct and connecting flights as long as space is confirmed.
*Children under 12 must not be left unattended.
What are some weather phenomena you would encounter in an approaching thunderstorm?
Sustained updrafts and down drafts
What are the performance and stability characteristics of an aircraft loaded near the aft CG limit?
Increased performance with decreased stability.
When should the PNF verbally intervene versus physically intervene?
Verbal intervention is warranted any time the PNF is concerned about an error and the PF shows no signs of correcting the issue.
Physical intervention is warranted when the aircraft and or its occupants are in immediate danger or the PF is incapacitated.
What can you do to reduce the danger of runway incursions while taxiing?
Taxi diagram out
Copy down taxi clearance
Pre-brief taxi route
Crew oxygen requirements
10,000'- 12,000': O2 must be used by each pilot and provided for other crew members for that part of the flight over 30 minutes.
Above 12,000': O2 must be used by each pilot during the entire flight and provided to other crew members.
Above FL250: If one pilot leaves his station, the other pilot must put on and use his O2 mask until the other pilot returns.
Passenger oxygen requirements
If presurization is lost, an emergency descent must be exicuted to 14,000' MSL in 4 minutes or less and the descent continued to 10,000' MSL or below. If 10,000' MSL cannot be attained due to MEA restrictions, cabin altitudes:
10,000'- 14,000': O2 must be available for that part of the flight for 10% of passengers.
14,000'- 15,000': O2 must be available for that part of the flight for 30% of passengers.
Above 15,000': O2 must be available for each passenger for that part of the flight.
Flap Selection Strait In vs. Circle
Strait-in non-precision approaches WILL be planed using flaps 25o regardless of break energy limitations.
On approaches witch brake energy limitations will be exceeded, crews may select flaps 45o below 1000' above the TDZE provided the following are met:
1. Weather on the approach allows visual contact with runway prior to descending below 500' above TDZE.
2. With the runway insight, the aircraft can land using normal maneuvers and land in the TDZ.
3. Flaps 45o is selected and landing checklist is complete prior to descending below 500'.
When circling, and in a position to land the PF will call flaps 45o , leaving MDA, final checks.
At 500' and Vref+15, what do you do?
If the airspeed is trending down, do nothing.
If airspeed is increasing, the PNF should call out that the airspeed is trending in the wrong direction (Vref+15 and increasing).
Below 1000' in IMC and 500' in VMC:
1. Airspeed greater than +10 knots or -5 knots from target.
2. Rate of descent greater than 1000 FPM.
3. Rate of descent greater than 2000 FPM under 2000'.
4. Engines not at a stabilized power setting.
5. Any course or glide path parameters not met for the type of approach being flown.
What is a normal descent?
Descents that do not scare the passengers.
What are normal maneuvers?
Maneuvers that do not upset the passengers.
What are the Aim point markings and how do they help you land in the TDZ?
They serve as a visual aiming point for landing aircraft. The aim points are broad white stripes located on each side of the runway center line and approximately 1000' from the landing threshold.
When completing the descent checklist, when is sterile cockpit in effect?
When completed at a higher altitude, sterile cockpit is in effect when the checklist is completed.
Who should passengers talk to when unhappy with the ERSP?
CRO (Complaint Resolution Officer).
Do you have to check with the FO after the preflight to see if they found any problems?
Yes, the PIC will confer with the FO an FA to see if they have discovered any discrepancies.
Are we required to check the oil cap on every preflight?
According to the Expanded Exterior Inspection Checklist we never have to check the cap, only the engine oil quantity (sight gauge).
Three avionics failures that must be reported to ATC.
Approach and or,
Communications equipment failures.
When can you leave a clearance limit from which an approach begins?
When cleared for the approach if in communication with ATC.
If lost comms; then commence descent and approach as close as possible to EFC time if one has been received; or if one has not been receivedas close as possible to the ETA as filed or amended with ATC.
What if the clearance limit is not a fix from which as approach begins?
Leave the fix at the EFC if one has been received; if one has not been received, then upon arrival over the clearance limit, proceed to a fix from which as approach begins and comence descent and approach as close as possible to the ETA as filed or amended with ATC.
Is a logbook entry required when you have a consultation with maintinence and a functional check is performed?
Explain the featureless terain illusion.
An absence of ground features, as when landing over water, darkened areas or snow covered ground. This can create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is.
Bounced landing procedure
Five feet AGL or less- reestablish a normal landing pitch attitude, add power as necessary to reestablish a normal rate of descent and evaluate runway remaining.
More than five feet AGL- immediately initiate a go-around, regardless of runway remaining.
What three things cold help you identify the runway that will prevent you from lining up for takeoff on the taxiway in low light?
In runway lighting (white instead of blue taxiway lights).
Runway designator number.
Runway side stripes.
White centerline on runway instead of yellow on taxiway.
Hazardous Attitude: Antiauthority, don't tell me.
Antidote: Follow the rules, they are usually right.
Hazardous Attitude: Impulsivity, so something quickly.
Antidote: Not so fast, think first.
Hazardous Attitude: Invulnerability, It wont happen to me.
Antidote: It could happen to me.
Hazardous Attitude: Macho, I can do it.
Antidote: Taking chances is foolish.
Hazardous Attitude: Resignation, Whats the use?
Antidote: I'm not helpless, I can make a difference.
What factors go into calculating Max Takeoff Weight?
Max structural weight
Zero fuel weight (if release fuel is below 2403lbs.)
Landing weight restricted (if fuel burn is below 638lbs.)
What factors go into calculating Max Enroute Weight?
Driftdown- option 1
What factors go into calculating Max Landing Weight?
Approach climb limit
Max structural landing weight
60% favorable and 70% suitable (performance alternate may be required).
When is a takeoff alternate required?
When the weather at the departure airport is below landing minimums.
What are the requirements for a takeoff alternate?
Alternate must be within one hour from departure airport at normal cruise speed in still air with one engine inoperative
Effective vs. issued with regards to charts.
Issued are current upon receipt and effective are current on date shown at 0901Z.
Example: PUB approach plate received on the 8th and you are flying to PUB where you will need to use the approach, but plate has an issued date of the 9th, can you use the chart? YES
What is the narrow runway illusion?
A narrower than usual runway can create the illusion that the aircraft is higher than it actually is. The pilot that does not recognize this will end up flying a lower approach; at risk of striking objects or landing short.
On a TAF, what dose this mean (WS 020/24025)?
Wind shear as 2000' from 240 at 25 kts.
When calculating landing distance what are the weights that we are concerned with?
Approach climb limit
Climb limit weight
Max structural landing weight
Runway limit weight (60/70 rule)
When dose filing a performance alternate increase our landing weight?
When your 60% suitable landing is limiting. Then you can file a performance alternate which will increase your suitable lading data to 70% at the destination. (70% data can never exceed the 60% data for the favorable runway)
When do you need a second alternate?
Lost comms between VORs with an MCA and a change in MEA. What altitudes do you fly?
Fly the higher of them all, at fix or performance to accomplish MEA.
With an engine fire on takeoff with NO power loss, what do you do and when do you do it?
Climb runway heading to 400' or OCA. Then call for Engine Fire Inflight memory items and continue to 1500' unless there is a Jepp Dp then you fly that. With no power loss you fly a normal profile.
If there is a wind shift at destination and you will be landing on a different runway than originally planned, is it necessary too calculate BRK energy limitation?
Yes, must apply the new brake energy limitation.
Favorable vs. Suitable
Favorable- dose not consider wind, terrain, ground handling, or approach aids.
Suitable- considers wind, terrain, ground handling, and approach aids.
What dose 1 IN LSR OVR IR BAPOOR mean?
1 inch loose snow over ice on the runway braking action poor (don't forget WEF dates).
What are your options when taxiing out to the runway when very light freezing drizzle is reported?
If takeoff is not accomplished within holdover time you must return to deice pad for another deice.
When do you need an alternate?
No instrument approach
Drift down (not derived)
Where are extra oxygen masks located for lap child?
One additional mask located in rows 1, 3, and 6.
Items for a 666 takeoff?
C- Captain must do the takeoff
A- APU must be on
T- Takeoff alternate
S- Static takeoff
J- Jepp allows it
Operable equipment for a 666 takeoff?
2 RVR's reporting at least 600 (all are controlling).
Inter cycle vs. residual ice?
Residual ice- Ice formations on the aircraft produced inflight that are carried to the ground.
Intercycle ice- Ice that accumulates on the protected surface between boot cycles.
Are you required to test icing system if no ice in forecast?
What is the difference between HAT and HAA?
HAT- Height Above Touchdown: highest point within first 3000' of runway. Used in strait-in approach minimums.
HAA- Height above Airport: highest point on any useable runway. Used in circling approach minimums.
T/F Checked bags over 100lbs. are considered air freight and "actual weight" is used for calculations.
Explain how you calculate Alternate Airport IFR Weather Minimums.
400 & 1: Select any approach and add 400' to the DA/DH or MDA and 1sm to the required visibility. Wind or other considerations are not a factor.
200 % 1/2: Select two strait-in approaches to two different runways. Add 200' to the DA/MDA and 1/2sm to the highest of the two required visibility. Can be the same navaid but must have two different identifiers. Can use opposite ends of the same runway, provided conditions do not exceed x-wind/ tailwind limitations.
Minimum holding speed if light to moderate icing conditions exist?
Child restraint system and the crews responsibilities.
Crewmembers are responsible to check that the child appears to be properly restrained and that the seat appears to be properly installed.
The parent is responsible to ensure that all manufactures instructions are complied with.
GO-AROUND must be initiated when airspeed of _____ and or a full red/white PAPI/VASI within _______ of TDZE?
Gain/loss of 20 knots,
Indicated airspeed of +10/-5 knots above/below target Vref crossing the threshold,
200' above TDZE.
What are three indications of a hidden electrical fire?
Popped circuit breaker.
You are performing an approach with no strait-in minimums published, like a VOR-A. If you have good visibility, say 5 miles, are you allowed to do a strait in? Explain?
Yes. If runway is insight with adequate time to execute a stabilized approach and flight is operated in B, C, or D airspace or within 35 miles of destination in E. The flight is under control of ATC. Flight crew can maintain basic cloud clearances (91.155).
What is the definition of a clearway?
The area beyond the runway not less than 500' wide, 1.25 degree slope with nothing protruding into that area except runway threshold lights.
What is GLA's definition of touch down zone?
The touchdown zone is the first 3000' of the runway, or the first third of the runway, whichever is shorter.
What are the standard call outs during all approaches?
Airspeed deviation greater than 5 knots and airspeed trend (ex: Vref+10, slowing rapidly).
What two conditions cannot be extended by a pre-takeoff contamination check?
Light freezing rain
If there is ice on the wings, can you assume there's more on the tail?
Deviations from ATC may be made solely based upon TWAS advisories?
What are the ADDITIONAL callouts during instrument approaches?
1000 above minimums
500 above minimums
200 above minimums
100 above minimums
Approach lights insight
LOC deviations of 1/3 dot
VOR deviations of 2 degrees or more
Bearing deviations of more than 5 degrees
Airspeed deviations of greater 5 kts, and airspeed trend
Descent rates in excess of 2000fpm below 2000' AGL
Descent rates in excess of 1000fpm below 1000' AGL
Monitor and callout airspeeds in relation to Vref (+10, +5, Vref)
White smoke in cockpit and cabin, what memory item and checklist do you call for?
Call for Cabin Fire or Smoke memory items then Cabin Fire or Smoke checklist.
Define Brake Energy
The maximum weight at which the aircraft brakes can absorb the amount of energy required to stop.
Define Max Structural weight
The maximum weight listed in the Limitations section of the FSM
Define Approach Climb Limit
It is the weight that allows the minimum climb gradients to be met required for each takeoff flight path segment as defined in FAR Part 25.
Aircraft cannot takeoff unless it weight upon arrival will allow landing at the destination airport within:
1. 60% of the most favorable runway AND,
2. 60% of the most suitable runway.
When calculating landing weight at the destination, the most limiting weight is restricting:
1. Approach Climb Limit
2. 60% favorable
3. 60% suitable
If the suitable runway limit is the most restrictive, a performance alternate may be filed allowing the 60% suitable data to be replaced with 70% suitable data.
High Altitude VOR service volumes:
1000' to 14,500' out to 40nm
14,500' to 18,000 out to 100nm
18,000' to 45,000 out to 130nm
45,000' to 60,000' out to 100nm
Low Altitude VOR service volumes:
1000' to 18,000' out to 40nm
Standard Terminal VOR service volumes:
1000' to 12,000' out to 25nm
LOC service volumes:
Transmitted from the far end of the runway the LOC provides course guidance out to 18nm and 10o to either side of the centerline as well as out to 10 nm and 35o to either side of the centerline.
DME service volumes:
Operates only by line-of-sight and signals may be received out to 199nm (slant range) with an accuracy of 1/2 mile or 3%.
What is the minimum fuel you can takeoff with?
Eough fuel to fly to the destination fly the expected approach, go missed then fly to the most distant alternate then for an additional 45 minutes at cruise.
Note: The PIC will ensure that the aircraft will not land with less than 30 minutes of fuel at normal cruise (16.7 lbs/min x 30min= 501 lbs). If the flight cannot be completed with this minimum fuel the PIC will declare an emergency.
What is the next step after clearing obstacles during a windshear recovery procedure?
Begin to configure the aircraft for continued climb back to the MSA or altitude as directed by ATC; PF calls FLAPS 15, GEAR UP.
Red ATT appears on the attitude indicator and the display banks. What checklist do you call for?
AHRS FAILURE checklist
With a hot start how long do you leave the starter engaged?
With the condition lever in FUEL CUTOFF, leave the starter engaged until the T6 is in the normal operating range.
Stabilized Approach Concept
Flight on the desired flight path, at a steady rate of descent at the target approach speed with the proper power setting.
Calculating a PDP
Time to PDP= 10% of HAT
Distance to PDP= HAT/300
What conditions will issue a Convective Sigmet?
Sever thunderstorm due to:
1. SFC winds greater or equal to 50 kts.
2. Hail at the surface greater than or equal to 3/4"
Embedded thunder storms
Lines of thunder storms
Thunderstorms producing heavy precipitation or greater affecting 40% of an area or 3000 sq. miles.
What are three things the CA should be notified of that are on board the aircraft?
Mercurial barometer/ thermometer
Rapid change in wind direction or velocity causing airspeed changes greater than 15kts or vertical speed changes greater than 500fpm.
What is a windshear alert?
A term used by ATC to indicate a windshear condition has been detected.
What is a Microburst Alert?
A term used by ATC to indicate that a microburst condition has been detected.
What is a microburst?
It is a small convective downburst where the sum of the peak headwind and tail wind is 30kts or greater.
Takeoffs or descents on the final approach segment are not to be made when the words "Microburst, Microburst Alert, or Shears of 30kts or greater" are used in reference to the runway of intended use.