A homogeneous mixture that has the same composition, color, density, and taste throughout
In solution, the substance being dissolved
In solution, the substance in which the solute is dissolved
A solution where water is the solvent
The max amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temp
How much solute is present in a solution compared to the amount of solvent
A solution that contains all the solute it can hold at a given temp
Any solution that can dissolve MORE solute at a given temp
A solution that contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temp
A substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in a water solution
An organic compound that changes COLOR in acids and bases
Any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in a water Solution; any substance that accepts H+ ions from acids
Any acid that dissociates ALMOST completely in solution
Any acid that only PARTLY dissociates in solution
Any base that dissociates COMPLETELY in solution
Any base that DOES NOT dissociate completely in solution
A measure of the concentration of H+ ions in it
Polar molecules have a slightly positive and slightly negative end as a result of electrons being SHARED UNEQUALLY
No polar molecules share electrons EQUALLY and DO NOT have oppositely charged ends
Is water Polar or Nonpolar?
Polar, it dissolves more substances than any other liquid
Why is water known as a universal solvent?
It dissolves more substances than any other liquid
Identify the parts of a solution
Solute and solvent
How do you know which substance is the SOLUTE in a solution?
It's the substance being dissolved And is Usually the substance present in the LESSER amount
5 teaspoons of salt are dissolved in 2 cups of water. What is the solute? What is the solvent?
Salt is solute
Water is solvent
List several solvents you encounter on a daily basis
Paint thinner, spot removers and nail polish are solvents that DO NOT contain water
List several solutes you encounter on a daily basis
Our bodies contain solutes dissolved in water
All solutions are liquids.
True or False? Explain
False. Solutions can be SOLIDS (ex., alloys like brass or sterling silver), or gases (ex ., diver's oxygen tank)
What is an alloy metal?
Solid solution of various metals
Describe how the metal atoms in an alloy are mixed?
Metals are melted, mixed evenly, then cooled back to a solid
How do water molecules help sugar molecules dissolve?
The negative ends of the polar water molecules pull on the positive ends of the sugar molecules
What factors can affect the rate of dissolving?
crystal size (surface area)
List possible ways that phases of matter could combine to form a
Do all solutes dissolve to the same extent in the same solution
No and you can determine this experimentally
Which product has the highest concentration: 100% pure oj from concentrate or 1orange drink containing 10% oh?
100% pure oj
What happens if a saturated solution is heated?
It may become unsaturated
Why is energy given off between ions and water molecules?
New bonds are formed
A supersaturated solution is unstable. Explain why this is so.
Because changes in temperature causes solute to fall out
Determine which solution is more concentrated: 17g of solute X dissolved in 100ml of water at 23•C or 26g of solute Z dissolved in 100mL of water at 23•C
If a solute crystallizes out of a solution when a seed crystal is added, what kind of solution is it?
Which 4 acids are important for industry? Give their names andAND formulas.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
Nitric acid (HNO3)
Hydrochloride acid (HCl)
Identify the property of bases evident in soaps.
I'd 3 important acids and describe their uses
Acetic acid - food preservatives
Carbonic acid - carbonated drinks
Hydrochloride acid - digestion as gastric juice in stomach
What ions do bases produce when dissolved in H2O? What are the properties of bases?
Hydroxide ions (OH1-); feel slipopery, change litmus paper from red to blue, corrosive, cause burns, become LESS alkaline when they react w/ acids; pH is GREATER than 7
What IONS do ACIDS produce when DISSOLVED in H2O? What are the PROPERTIES of acids?
hydronium ions H3O1+; sour taste, corrosive, cause burns, turn litmus paper from blue to red, lose their acidity when they react w/ alkaline (basic) materials; pH is LESS than 7
Explain how keeping a carbonated beverage capped keeps it from going flat
When capped CO2 stays in solution whch keeps the soda fizzy
If a solute crystalizes OUT of a solution when a seed crystal is added what kind of solution is it?
Identify the type of solution you have at 35, C the solute continues to dissolve as you add more
Identify 3 important bases and describe their uses
Aluminum hydroxide - color-fast fabrics, antacids
Magnesium Hydroxide - laxative, antacid
Sodium hydroxide - to make soap and drain cleaner
Predict what metallic compound forms when sulfuric acid reacts with magnesium metal
If an acid donates H+ and a base produces OH-, what compound is likely to be prodicedwhen acids react with bases?
HOH, which is water
Intestinal fluid has a pH of 8. Is it basic or acidic?
Vinegar has a pH of approximately 2.5. Is it basic or acidic?
Pure water has a pH of...
If a solution has a pH of 8.5, does it have more hydroxide ions or hydronium ions?
What arenuffers and how are they important to health?
Buffers are solutions obtaining ions that react with acids or bases to minimize their effects. This is important because our blood needs to maintain a pH of of about 7.4
Explain how to make a dilute solution of a strong acid
You can dilute hydrochloric acid, a strong acid, by adding a small amount of acid to a much larger amount of water
What acid is found in the stomach?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
What is the acid found in car batteries?
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
What is the active ingredient in Drano?
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
When CO2 is dissolved in rain water what acid is produced? What is the pH of rainwater?
Carbonic acid (H2CO3); approximately 5.6
What acid is found in DNA and soda pop?
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
Explain why a CONCENTRATED acid <acid> is not necessarily a strong acid.
A <acid> has a large amount of acid dissolved in a solution. A strong acid easily donates H+ ions. A concentrated acid could be a WEAK acid inasution.
Paints varnishes and synthetic clear coatings are _______? These products are designed to protect the surface of an object for the environment. Make a list of 3 examples of items that that haves protective coating that was applied as a solution
Polyurethane on wood floors
Parking lot line marks
Compare and contrast heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixtures, and solutions.
HETEROGENEOUS mixed materials are NOT distributed evenly
HOMOGENEOUS the particles are distributed EVENLY at the molecular or ionic level
SOLUTION is HOMEGEENOUS (has the SAME composition, color, density and taste throughout
Describe how temperature affects the rate of dissolving. Give an example.
INCREASING temperatures causes the particles to move faster, which cause solutes to dissolve FASTER.
sugar dissolves faster in hot tea than ice tea
Explain the relationship between surface area and rate of dissolving of a solid in a liquid
a LARGER surface area INCREASES the rate of dissolving since the dissolving of a solid in a liquid occurs at the surface of the solid
Amalgams, which sometimes are used in tooth fillings, are alloys of mercury with other metals. Is an amalgam a solution? Explain
Yes, one metal acts as the solute while the other metal acts as the solvent