Sociology Final Review

  1. Which social theorist focused on historical materialism and discussed capitalism as a conflict between capitalists and workers?
    Karl Marx
  2. Which social theorist addressed the importance of ideas, culture, and religion and wrote a famous study titled The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?
    Max Weber
  3. Which social theorist looked at how society holds together, discussed anomie, and wrote a famous study titled Suicide?
    Emile Durkheim
  4. Which social theorist translated Auguste Comte’s work into English, authored the first sociology book on methods, and is considered a example of the earliest feminist social scientist?
    Harriet Martineau
  5. Which sociological theory is a micro-level theory that examines how shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivation behind people’s actions?
    Symbolic Interactionism
  6. ___ is a term coined by C.Wright Mills and refers to the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
    Sociological Imagination
  7. ___ culture is everything that is part of our constructed environment, including technology; whereas ___ culture consists of values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.
    Material culture; nonmaterial culture
  8. ___ refers to taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning value.
    Cultural Relativism
  9. ___ refers to a group united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.
  10. ___ are methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in, or can be converted to, numeric form.
    Quantitative Methods
  11. ____ are methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
    Qualitative Methods
  12. The ___ variable (also known as the cause) is a measured fact that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the ___ variable, or the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain (also known as the effect).
    Independent variable; dependent variable
  13. In ____ sampling, each person in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
  14. ____ refers to the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society.
  15. Which of the following was NOT presented as an agent of socialization?
    -All of the above were presented
    -All of the above were presented
  16. ___ refers to the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status.
  17. ___ status is a status into which one is born (also known as an involuntary status); whereas ___ status is a status into which one enters (also known as a voluntary status).
    Ascribed status; achieved status
  18. ___ groups are characterized as impersonal, instrumental (means to an end), contingent affiliation, and roles are more important than individuals who fill them.
    Secondary Groups
  19. ___ is a group that helps us to understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups.
    Reference Group
  20. ___ refers to the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own.
  21. ____ denotes a social position, the set of social arrangements that are built around ____, the natural or biological differences that distinguish males from females.
    Gender; sex
  22. ____ refers to a line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones and often includes lack of history, absolutism, and rigidity.
  23. ___ refers to an intellectual, consciousness-raising movement based on the idea that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities.
  24. Which theory of gender inequality examines how gender is a process in which people participate with every social interaction they have, focusing on how in “doing gender” people contribute to, reaffirm, and reproduce gender inequality?
    Social Constructionism
  25. The sociological approach to the social construction of _____ examines variation in what is considered “normal” sexual behavior and different patterns through history and across cultures.
  26. ___ refers to an invisible lid on women’s climb up the employment ladder; whereas ___ refers to the promotional ride men take to the top of a work organization, especially in feminized jobs.
    Glass ceiling; glass escalator
  27. TRUE or FALSE: Race is a social construction, meaning race is not natural or biological.
  28. ___ refers to the formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people.
  29. ____ is externally imposed, involuntary, usually based on physical differences, hierarchical, exclusive, and unequal; whereas ____ is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchical, fluid and multiple, cultural, and planar.
    Race; ethnicity
  30. ___ refers to negative thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group; whereas ____ refers to harmful or negative acts against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category without regard to their individual merit.
    Prejudice; discrimination
  31. Which equality ideology claims that inequality of condition is acceptable so long as the rules of the game remain fair, which resonates with capitalism and notions of meritocracy?
    Equality of Opportunity
  32. ____ refers to an economically based system of stratification characterized by relative categorization and somewhat loose social mobility.
    Class system
  33. ___ refers to money received by a person for work or from returns on investments; whereas ___ refers to a family’s or individual’s net worth (total assets minus total debts).
    Income; wealth
  34. TRUE or FALSE: Income and wealth inequality have been decreasing.
  35. ____ refers to mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy.
    Structural mobility
  36. ___ refers to the point at which a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members; whereas ____ is a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location.
    Absolute poverty; relative poverty
  37. TRUE or FALSE: The U.S. has lower poverty rates compared to other developed nations.
  38. ____ is the dominant and privileged category of men and often regarded as norm against which all others are judged.
    Hegemonic masculinity
  39. ____ refers to structured social inequality including systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships.
  40. Which costs are used to calculate the official poverty line in the United States?
    -Food Costs
    -Housing Costs
    -Childcare Costs
    -Transportation Costs
    -All of the above
    -Food costs
  41. TRUE or FALSE: What counts as social deviance varies across contexts.
  42. ____ solidarity has social cohesion based on sameness; whereas ____ solidarity has social cohesion based on difference and interdependent parts.
    Mechanical solidarity; organic solidarity
  43. ___ refers to those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals.
    Social control
  44. Which theory of deviance explains how social context and social cues of disorder impact whether individuals act deviantly and examines whether local, informal social norms allow such acts?
    Broken Windows Theory
  45. ____ crime is committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty; whereas ____ crime is committed by a professional agent against a corporation, agency, or other business.
    Street crime; white-collar crime
  46. ___ refers to a negative social label that not only changes your behavior toward a person, but also alters that person’s own self-concept and social identity.
  47. TRUE or FALSE: Today the U.S. has the lowest rates of incarceration than ever before in American history.
  48. ____ is an economic system in which property and goods are owned privately; investments are determined by private decisions; and prices, production, and distribution of goods are primarily determined by competition in a free market.
  49. ___ is an economic system in which most or all the needs of the population are provided through nonmarket methods of distribution.
  50. TRUE or FALSE: Since the 1970s, unionization in the U.S. has been increasing.
  51. Which of the following was NOT presented as a phenomenon tied to globalization--the increase in trade and economic exchange among individuals, corporations, and states around the globe?
    -New Markets
    -New Means of Exchange
    -New Players
    -New Rules
    -All of the above were presented
    -All of the above were presented
  52. ___ is interested in the ways scientific communities study the objects of their research, the ways science changes how we live and interact with each other, and the unexpected consequences of scientific discoveries.
    Sociology of Science
  53. According to Thomas Kuhn, ___ occurs when enough anomalies accrue to challenge the existing paradigm, showing that it is incomplete or inadequate to explain all observed phenomena.
    paradigm shift
  54. ___ refers to how sociologists research the effects of the social world and the natural world on each other.
    Sociology of the Environment
  55. ___ refers to stratification in information technology within countries; whereas ___ refers to stratification in information technology between countries.
    Social divide; global divide
  56. ___ refers to the process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such.
  57. TRUE or FALSE: Married people, especially men, tend to live shorter than unmarried people.
  58. According to your textbook and lecture, what is the leading killer worldwide?
    Waterborne illnesses
  59. ___ refers to the justifiable right to exercise power.
  60. Which of the following was NOT presented as a characteristic of bureaucracies?
    -Structured Hierarchically
    -All of the above were presented
Card Set
Sociology Final Review
A compilation of 60 questions, 30 of which will be on the final.