Research in Psych

  1. critical thinking
    the process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence
  2. hypothesis
    in scientific research, a prediction stated as a specific, testable propsition about a phenomenon
  3. operational definition
    a statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research
  4. variable
    a factor or characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research
  5. data
    numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions
  6. threory
    an integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena
  7. naturalistic observation
    the process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural enviroment
  8. case study
    a research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
  9. survey
    a research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
  10. correlation study
    a research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, to test predictions, to evaluate theoriesm and to suggest new hypotheses
  11. experiment
    a situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and then observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant
  12. experimental group
    in an experiment, the group that revieces the experimental treatment
  13. control group
    in an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group
  14. independent variable
    the variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiemtn
  15. dependent variable
    in a nexperiment, the factor affected by the independent variable
  16. confounding variable
    in an experiment, any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
  17. random variable
    in an experiment, a confounding variable in which uncontrolable factors affect the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
  18. random assignment
    the procedure by which random variables are evenly distributed in a nesperiment by putting participants into various groups through a random process
  19. placebo
    a physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredients but produces an effect because the person recieving it blieves it will
  20. experimental bias
    a congoudning variable tha occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis
  21. double-blind design
    a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group
  22. sampling
    the process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
  23. representative sample
    a group of research participants whose characteristics farily reflect the characteristics of the population from which they were selected
  24. random sample
    a group of research participants selected from a population whose members all had an equal chance of being chosen
  25. biased sample
    a group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen
  26. behavioral genetics
    the study of how genes and enviroments affect behavior
  27. descriptibe statistics
    numbers that describe and summarize a set of reseach data
  28. inferential statistics
    a set of mathematical procedures that help researchers infer what their data might mean
  29. mode
    a measure of central tendency that is the value or score that occurs most frequently in a data set
  30. median
    a measure of cental tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data
  31. mean
    a measure of cental tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data
  32. range
    a measure of variablity that is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a data set
  33. standard deviation
    a measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set
  34. correlation
    in research, the degree to which one variable is related to another
  35. correlation coefficient
    a statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables
  36. statistically significant
    a term used to describe research results when the outcome of a statistical test indicates that the probabilty of those results occuring by chance is small
Card Set
Research in Psych