Interpersonal Communication

  1. attraction theory
    interpersonal attraction- form a relationship

    physical attraction-attraction to physical appearance

    social attraction- attracted to personality

    tack- attracted to ability and dependability
  2. We are attracted by.....(3 things)
    1) proximity

    2) similarity

    3) complementarity
  3. Uncertainty reduction theory
    Theory suggesting that people are motivated to reduce their uncertianty about others
  4. Predicted outcome theory
    theory predicting that we form relationships when we think the effort will be worth it
  5. Social exchange theory
    theory perdicting that people seek to form and maintian relationships in which the beneifts outweigh the costs
  6. Comparison level
    your realistic expectation of what you think you deserve from a relationship
  7. comparision level for alteratives
    your assessment of how good your current realtionship is, compared with your other options
  8. Equity theory
    a theory predicting that a good relationship is one in which your ratio of costs and reqards is equal to your partners
  9. Over benefited
    state in which your relational rewards exceed your relational costs
  10. under benefited
    the state in which your relational costs exceed your relational rewards
  11. Charateristics of friendships (5)
    • 1) friendships are voluntary
    • 2) friends are usually peers
    • 3) friendships are governed by rules
    • 4) friendships differ by sex
    • 5) friendships have a life span
  12. what are some ways friendships are governed by rules
    • keep secrets
    • help when needed
    • provide support
    • respect friends privacy
  13. Rawlins six friendship stages
    • 1) Role-limited interactions
    • 2)Friendly relations
    • 3) Moved toward friendship
    • 4) Nascent friendship
    • 5) Stabilized friendship
    • 6) Waning friendship
  14. Role limited interactions (1)
    • people meet and interact for the first time
    • share little personal info
  15. friendly relation (2)
    • convo becomes friendlier
    • share personal sotries
    • can be invite for friendship
  16. moved toward friendship (3)
    • go places together
    • moves toward friendship stage
    • communication becomes more social and less bound by norms and rules
  17. nascent friendship (4)
    • think of themselves as friends
    • communication continues to become more personal
  18. stabilized friendship (5)
    • friendship fully established
    • trust is storng
    • adjust attitudes and opinions more in line with each other
  19. waning friendship (6)
    • decline of friendship
    • more distant or terminate
  20. Componets of intimate relationships (4)
    • 1) require deep commitment
    • 2) foster interdependence
    • 3) require continuous investment
    • 4) spark dialectical tensions
  21. autonomy v.s. connecion
    desire to be own person v.s. connection
  22. openness v.s. closeness
    expressing feeling and thoughts v.s. not sharing
  23. predictability v.s. novelty
    same pattern v.s. new experiences (keeping things fresh)
  24. Characteristics of romantic relationships (5)
    1) some rr are exclusive; others arent

    2) some rr are voluntary; others arent

    3) some rr are based on love; others arent

    4) some rr involve opposite-sex partners; others arent

    5) some rr are permanent; others arent
  25. 5 stages of forming a rr
    • 1) Initaing
    • 2) Experimenting
    • 3) Intensifying
    • 4) Integrating
    • 5) Bonding
  26. Initating (1)
    stage of relationship developement when people mee and interact for the first time
  27. Experimenting (2)
    • partners have conversation to learn more about eachother
    • small talk
    • see you want to take relationship further
  28. Intensifying (3)
    • People move from being acquaintances to being close friends
    • Formal dating
    • share intimate info
  29. Integrating (4)
    • developement of a deep commitment
    • sense that the relationship has its own idenitiy
    • "WE"
    • socalize with the same type of couples
    • committed relationship has developed
  30. Bonding (5)
    • partners make a public announcement of commitment
    • EX. marriage
  31. Dissolution stages of a rr
    • 1) DIfferentiating
    • 2) Circumscribing
    • 3) Stagnating
    • 4) Avoiding
    • 5) Terminating
  32. Differentiating (1)
    partners being to see their differences as undesirable or annoying
  33. Circumscribing (2)
    • decreased quality and quantity of communication behaviors
    • spend more time apart
    • when together they dont talk about problems
    • "safe topics"
  34. Stagnating (3)
    • couples barely communicate with each other
    • "going through the motions"
    • avoid talking about problems because you dont want conflict
    • stay in this stage for a while
  35. Avoiding (4)
    • partners create physical and emotional distance between each other
    • ex. moving out of the house
    • "I cant be around you right now"
    • this stage can make or break realionship
  36. Terminating (5)
    • relationship is to be offically over
    • break up or divorce
  37. Family as a System (4)
    • 1) Families are influenced by thir enviorment
    • 2) Family members are interdependent
    • 3) FAmilies are more than the sum of their parts
    • 4) Family systems include smaller subsystems
  38. Communication Issues in families (4)
    • 1) Roles
    • 2) Rituals
    • 3) Stories
    • 4) Secrets
  39. Characteristics if Interpersonal Conflict (5)
    • 1) its natural
    • 2) has content, relational, and procedural deminsions
    • 3) can be direct or indirect
    • 4) can be harmful
    • 5) can be benefical
  40. Sex and gender effect conflict
    • Men are tought not to hurt women
    • passive aggression
    • Men are taught to engage in conflict directly

    • Depand withdraw pattern
    • women say "we need to talk"
  41. Culture effects conflict
    • Individualistic v.s. collectivistic
    • Depand withdraw Pattern
    • High or low context cultures
  42. Different forms of power (5)
    • 1) reward
    • 2) coercive
    • 3) referent
    • 4) legitimate
    • 5) expert
  43. reward power
    power that derives fromt he ability to reward
  44. coercive power
    power based on the ability to punish
  45. referent power
    power that derives from ones attraction to or admiration for another
  46. legitimate power
    power based on legitimate status or position
  47. expert power
    power that derives from ones talent, experience, trainign, experience, or knowledge
  48. Managing Interpersonal Conflict
    Problematic Behaviors during conflict

    5 types of conflict styles
  49. Problematic Behaviors During conflict (4)
    • 1) Critism
    • 2) Contempt
    • 3) Deffensiveness
    • 4) Stonewalling
  50. Critism
    the expression of complaints about another party
  51. Contempt
    Expression of insults and attacks on another's self worth
  52. Defensiveness
    Tendency to deny validity of criticisms directed at the self
  53. Stonewalling
    behavior withdrawing from a convo of an interaction
  54. Strategies for managing conflict seccessfully (5)
    • 1) Competing
    • 2) Avoiding
    • 3) Accommodating
    • 4) compromising
    • 5) Collaborating
  55. Competing
    your goal is to win while other party loses
  56. avoiding
    involves ignoring or falling to deal with the conflict
  57. Accomodating
    gives in to the party's needs and desires while suboordinating one's own
  58. Compromising
    Both parties give up something they want so both can recieve something they want
  59. collaborating
    working toward a solution that meets both paries needs
  60. Emotion
    bodys multidimensional response to an event that enhances or inhibits one's goals
  61. Mood
    feeling often has no identifiable cause
  62. Joyful/ Affectionate emotions (4)
    1) Happiness- contentment, pleasure, joy

    2) Love- Caring for attracted to, commited to someone

    3) Passion- secondary emotion consisting of joy, and surprise, excotement and attraction for another

    4) Liking- positive over all evaluation of another person
  63. Hostile emotions (5)
    1) Anger- emotional response to being wronged

    2) Contempt- leeds you to feel you are better than someone else

    3) Disgust- feeling of revulsion in reation to something offensive

    4) Jealousy- existance or quality of an important relationship is being threatened by a third party

    5) Envy- desire for something another person has
  64. Sad/ Anxious emotions (5)
    1) Sadness- emotion feeling unhappy, sorrowful and discouraged usually as a result of some form of loss

    2) Depression- physical illness involving faituge, weight loss, thoughts of suicide

    3) Grief- Emotional proess of dealing with profound loss

    4) Fear- mind and bodys reaction to percieved danger
  65. Nature of emotion (4)
    • 1) Multidimensional
    • 2) vary in valence and intensity
    • 3) primary and secondary forms
    • 4) meta- emotions
  66. Miltidimensional
    Emotions are physiological

    Emotions are cognitive

    Emotions are behavioral

    Emotions are social and cultural
  67. Valence
    positivity or negativity of an emotion
  68. Intensity
    How high or low the emotions is
  69. Primary emotions
    distinct emotional experiences not consisting of combinations of other emotions

    joy, sadness, anger, fear, suprise, and digust
  70. Secondary emotions
    Emotions ocmpused of combinations of primary emotions
  71. Meta- emotion
    emotion about emotion
  72. Display Rules- Definition
    unwritten codes that govern the ways people manage and express emotions
  73. Display Rules (5)
    • 1) Intensification
    • 2) De- intensification
    • 3) Simulation
    • 4) Inhibition
    • 5) Masking
  74. Intensification
    exaggerating emotion to appear as though you are experiencing it more intensity than you are

    acting as though youre furious when youre only mildly annoyed
  75. De-intensification
    downplaying an wmotion to appear as though you are experiencing it less intensly than you are

    acting as though youre mildly annoyed when you are actually furious
  76. Simulation
    acting as though youre feeling an emotion that you actually arent experiencing

    acting as though youre fuerious when you indifferent
  77. Inhibition
    acting as though youre indifferent or emotionless when youre actually experiencing an emotion

    acthing as though you are indifferent when you are actually furious
  78. Masking
    expressing one emotion when you are feeling another

    acting as though youre furious when youre actually sad
  79. Emotional Contagion
    tendency to minic the emotional experiences and expressions of another
  80. Emotional Intilligence
    ability to percieve and understand emotions, use emotions to facillitate thuoght, and manage emotions constructively
Card Set
Interpersonal Communication
Chapters 9- 12