Chapter 12 Psychology

  1. Attitudes
    The evaluation of objects, events, or ideas
  2. Mere Exposure Effect
    People have more positive atttudes towards what they are familiar with
  3. Explicit Attitudes
    Attitudes that people are aware of and can report
  4. Implicit Attitudes
    Attitudesthat influence our feelings and behavior at an unconscious level
  5. Cognitive Dissonance
    An uncomfortable mental state due to conflicts between attitudes or between attitudes and behavior
  6. Postdecisional Dissonance
    Focusing on positive aspects of a choice that's already been made
  7. Persuasion
    The active and conscious effort to change attitudes through the transmission of a message
  8. Elaboration Likelihood Model
    A theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude change
  9. Central Persuasion Route
    people pay attention to arguments and consider all information; leads to strong attitudes that are not likely to change over time
  10. Peripheral Persuasion Route
    people minimally process a message; leads to impulsive actions
  11. nonverbal behavior
    the facial expressions, gestures, and movements by which one communicates with others
  12. Attributions
    people's casual explanations for why events or actions occur
  13. personal attributions
    explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and effort
  14. situational attributions
    explanations that refer to external events, such as weather, luck, accidents, or the actions of others
  15. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situation factors in explaining behavior
  16. Actor/Observer discrepancy
    people tend to attribute their own flaws to situational factors, but attribute others' flaws to personal characteristics
  17. Stereotypes
    Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of information about peple based on their membership in certain groups
  18. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    people's tendency to behave in ways that confirm their own or others' expectations
  19. Prejudice
    the usually negative affective or attitudinal responses associated with stereotypes
  20. Discrimination
    the inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership
  21. ingroup favoritism
    The tendency for people to evaluate favorable and privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup
  22. Social facilitation
    Presence of others enhances performance
  23. Social Loafing
    the tendency for people to work less hard in a group than when working alone
  24. Deindividuation
    A phenomenon of low self-awareness, in which people lose their individuality and fail to attend to personal standards
  25. groupthink
    people are so concerned with maintaining the group's cohesiveness, so the group will make a bad decision
  26. social norms
    expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior
  27. conformity
    the altering of one's opinions or behaviors to match those of others or to match social norms
  28. compliance
    the tendency to agree to do things requested by others
  29. aggression
    any behavior or action that involves the intention to harm someone else
  30. prosocial
    tending to benefit others
  31. altruism
    the providing of help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so
Card Set
Chapter 12 Psychology
Chapter 12 Social Psychology Flashcards