Anatomy and Physiology

  1. The 3 functional areas of the cerebral cortex?
    • Motor areas- control voluntary movement
    • Sensory areas- conscious awareness of sensation
    • Association areas- integrate the entire cortex
  2. Primary motor cortex
    allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements
  3. Premotor cortex
    controls learned, repititious, or patterned motor skills
  4. Broca's area
    directs muscles of the tongue
  5. Frontal eye field
    controls voluntary eye movements
  6. Olfactory cortex
  7. Gustatory cortex
  8. Visceral sensory area
    stomach area
  9. Vestibular cortex
  10. Left hemisphere of the brain controls what?
    language, math, and logic
  11. Right hemisphere of the brain controls what?
    insight, visual-spatial skills, intuition, and artistic skills
  12. Functions of the basal nuclei
    • influence muscular control
    • help regulate attention
    • regulate intensity of slow movements
    • inhibit unnecessary movements
  13. Thalamic Function
    mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory
  14. Hypothalamic Function
    regulate body temp, food intake, water balance, thirst, and sleep
  15. What does the medulla oblongata regulate?
    vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing
  16. Limbic system
    • emotional or affective brain
    • puts emotional responses to odors
  17. Amygdala
    • recognizes angry expressions
    • assesses danger
    • fear response
  18. RAS (reticular activating system)
    • sends impulses to cerebral cortex to keep it concious and alert
    • severe injury = coma
  19. Alpha waves
    • 8-13 Hz
    • regular and rhythmic, low-amplitude
  20. Beta waves
    • 14-30 Hz
    • rhythmic, less regular waves occurring when mentally alert
  21. Theta waves
    • 4-7 Hz
    • more irregular
    • common in children, uncommon in adults
  22. Delta waves
    • 4 Hz or less
    • high-amplitude waves seen in deep sleep
  23. Two types of sleep?
    • nonrapid eye movement (NREM)
    • rapid eye movement (REM)
  24. Stages of sleep?
    • first two of NREM during first 30-45 min
    • fourth stage achieved in 90 min
    • REM sleep begins abruptly
  25. Sleep disorders?
    • narcolepsy- fall asleep randomly
    • insomnia- inability to obtain amount or quality sleep needed
    • sleep apnea- stop breathing during sleep
  26. Categories of memory
    • Declarative memory (factual knowledge)
    • Nondeclarative memory (remembered by doing, hard to unlearn)
  27. Protection of the brain
    • bone (skull)
    • membranes (meninges)
    • watery cushions (cerebrospinal fluid)
    • blood-brain barrier
  28. 3 layers of meninges?
    • dura mater- strongest meninx
    • arachnoid mater- middle layer with weblike extensions
    • pia mater- clings tightly to the brain
  29. Degenerative brain disorders
    • Alzheimers- progressive disease of the brain, results in dementia
    • Parkinsons- degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons
    • Huntingtons- degeneration of the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology
chapter 12