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  1. Problem in rice
    bacillus cereus - emetic form
  2. Rod, spore former, found in soil
    bacillus cereus
  3. Corn, potatoes, vegetables, meat products
    forms exotoxins
    bacillus cereus
  4. exotoxin elaborate in food
    emetic form
  5. exotoxin elaborated in GI tract
    diarrheal form
  6. Diarrhea, no vomiting
    bacillus cereus - diarrheal form
  7. nausea, vomiting, no diarrhea
    emetic form
  8. Onset: 6-15 hrs Duration: 6-12 hrs
    bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
  9. salads containing egg, chicken, tuna, macaroni, deli meats
    heavily handled foods
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  10. NVCD drop in body temp, sweating
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  11. Humans and animals - skin, hide, hair, feathers, mucous mem., pimples, infected wounds, respiratory system
    staphylococcus aureus
  12. causes mastitis in cattle
    staphylococcus aureus
  13. 80% of poultry carry this
  14. produces exotoxins that are enterotoxins
    staphylococcus aureus
  15. Onset: 1-6 hrs Duration: 1-2 days
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  16. MRSA causing
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  17. exotoxin heat stable
    staphylococcus aureus
  18. salt tolerant
    staphylococcus aureus
  19. will grow at Aw .85
    staphylococcus aureus
  20. ETEC
    Enterotoxigenic e.coli
  21. EIEC
    enteroinvasive e. coli
  22. EPEC
    enteropathogenic e.coli
  23. EAggEC
    enteroaggregative e. coli
  24. EHEC
    enterogemorrhagic e. coli
  25. Traveler's diarrhea
    enterotoxigenic e.coli
  26. bacilliary dysentary
    enteroinvasive e.coli
  27. infant diarrhea
    enteroaggregative e.coli
  28. spore former, found in soil and carried in intestines of animals and humans
    clostridium perfringens
  29. Usually do not have nausea, fever, vomiting, but do have diarrhea
    clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
  30. grows without oxygen and can produce a deadly toxin
    clostridium botulinum
  31. untreated garlic/oil mixures
    clostridium botulinum
  32. toxin mediated infection
    hemorrhagic colitis
  33. found in ground beef and contaminated produce
    escherichia coli
  34. HUS
    hemolytic uremic syndrome
  35. ground beef should be cooked at
    • 155 - servsafe
    • 160 - USDA
    • 165 - at risk pop
  36. e. coli shiga toxin producing is found primarily
    in the GI tract of cattle
  37. escherichia coli produces endotoxins in the GI tract called
  38. living organisms that need a host to survive
  39. Raw or undercooked: Herring, cod, halibut, mackerel, pacific salmon, squid
  40. tingling in throat, coughing up worms
  41. transmitted via larvae in muscle of fish
    anisakis simplex
  42. freezing for several days kills larvae
    anisakis simplex
  43. Trichinellosis
    Trichinella spiralis
  44. larvae containing cyst in pork muscle
    trichinella spiralis
  45. 3 stages of trichinellosis
    intestinal phase, muscle-invasion phase, convalescent phase
  46. Onset: 2-28 days
    Duration: 1-6 wks
  47. Swine, bear, marine mammals
    trichinella spiralis
  48. prevention for trichinellosis
    cooking, salting, curing, freezing, irradiation
  49. Cestodes
  50. Taenia saginatta found in
  51. Taenia solium
    found in swine
  52. Taeniasis is a _____ infection
  53. Cysticercosis is a ________ infection
  54. loss of appetite
    abdominal pain
    weight loss
  55. seizures
    psychiatric disturbances
  56. cryptosporidium parvum
  57. untreated/contaminated water and produce
    cryptosporidium parvum
  58. transmitted via oocytes in feces
    cryptosporidium parvum
  59. cause of the largest waterborne outbreak in US 400,000 ppl infected
    cryptosporidium parvum
  60. resistant to chloronation
    cryptosporidium parvum
  61. problem in daycare centers
    rotavirus or cryptosporidium parvum
  62. Giardiasis
    Giardia duodenalis
  63. backpacker's nemesis
    Giardia duodenalis
  64. Scombroid poisoning toxin
  65. Tuna, bonita, mackerel, mahi mahi
    Scombroid poisoning
  66. reddening face and neck
    burning/tingling mouth
    scombroid poisoning
  67. Ciguatera fish poisoning toxin
  68. Predatory reef fish
  69. reversal hot/cold sensations
    tingling in fingers/toes
    joint muscle pain
  70. toxins are heat stable
    shellfish poisoning
  71. PSP
    paralytic shellfish poisoning
  72. NSP
    neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
  73. ASP
    Amnesic shellfish poisoning
  74. Pacific & New England coast (colder water)
    paralytic shellfish poisoning
  75. PSP toxin
  76. Red Tide is associated with:
    • Karenia brevis
    • Gambierdiscus toxicus
  77. HAB
    harmful algal blooms
  78. neurotoxins are produced by
    consumption of algae
  79. karenia brevis and gambierdiscus produce which toxin
  80. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning toxin
  81. Only toxin not associated with scallops
  82. toxins associated with hot/cold sensations
    • brevetoxin
    • ciguatoxin
  83. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin
    domoic acid
  84. warmer waters of gulf and caribbean
    NSP - brevetoxin
  85. waters of pacific NW & east of Canada
    ASP - domoic acid
  86. confusion
    memory loss
    domoic acid
  87. puffer fish produces this toxin
  88. potent neurotoxin
  89. Fugu poisoning
    tetrodotoxin - puffer fish
  90. parathesia, dizziness, resp. failure, tremors, convulsions, death
    fugu poisoning
  91. fungi commonly cause
    food spoilage and sometimes illness
  92. grows well in acidic food w/ low water activity
  93. True or false - cooking kills molds
    true - but not the toxin they produce
  94. toxins produced by molds are called
  95. produces aflatoxin
    Aspergillus flavus
  96. Turkey X disease
  97. aflatoxins cause
    liver cancer
  98. FDA guidelines for moldy foods
    hard food - cut off mold plus 1 inch
  99. name 3 mycotoxins
    • aflatoxin
    • achratoxin
    • psoralen
  100. Spoils food, not harmful
  101. produces slime layer
  102. true or false - mushroom toxins are destroyed by cooking
  103. found in pottery, pipes, crystal, paint
  104. pipes, containers
  105. gray enamelware
  106. galvanized containers
  107. CRM
    corrosion resistant materials
  108. any material that maintains its original surface characteristics under prolonged exposure to heat, cold and chemicals
    corrosion resistant materials
  109. all food contact surfaces must be made out of
  110. pesticides can contaminate by
    • surface contamination during production
    • plant uptakes pesticide during prod
    • surface contam. by application of pesticide in food service
  111. GRAS
    generally recognized as safe
  112. never use to mask spoilage
    use in recommended amounts
    food additives
  113. flavor inhancer
    5th basis taste "Umami"
    Monosodium Glutamate
  114. Symptoms of MSG allergy
    • flushing of face
    • dizziness
    • headache
    • dry burning throat
    • nausea
  115. potato of vegetable whitener
  116. antimicrobial
  117. used in wine, frozen shrimp, dired fruit, frozen potatoes
  118. if present in greater than this amount, it must be declared on label
    10 ppm
  119. alternatives for sulfites
    • citric acid
    • lactic acid
    • ascorbic acid
    • erythorbic acid
    • gluconic acid
    • acetic acid
  120. sulfite symptoms
    • nausea
    • diarrhea
    • breathing difficulties
    • coma
    • loss of conciousness
    • death
  121. Name 6 common food allergens
    • Milk and Dairy products
    • Eggs and egg products
    • Fish and shellfish
    • Wheat
    • Soy and soy products
    • Peanuts and tree nuts
  122. Name 6 symptoms of food allergies
    • Itching in and around mouth, face, scalp
    • Tightening in throat
    • wheezing or shortness of breath
    • swelling of face, eyes, hands, feet
    • gastrointestinal symptoms
    • loss of conciousness/death
  123. Ways to protect guests from food allergies
    • Be able to fully describe menu items
    • If you are unsure about an item, urge guest to order something else
    • Ensure cookware and utensils are allergen free
  124. Mode of infection of trichinellosis spiralis
    • Humans consume pork containing cyst
    • Larvae released from cyst into intestine
    • Larvae invade intestinal wall
    • Mature in 5-7 days
    • Reproduces
    • New larvae migrate through bloodstream to muscle
    • Larvae become encysted
  125. 10% death rate with medication
    Clostridium botulinum
  126. Jaundice
    Hepatitis A
  127. Most common FBI for children
  128. Most severe form of Salmonella
    Salmonella Typhi
  129. Onset 3-70 days
    Listeria Monocytogenes
  130. Most common cause of FBI in Japan
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  131. Primary septicemia
    Vibrio vulnificus
  132. Sequel disease - Guillian Barre Syndrom
    Campylobacter jejuni
  133. most adults are immune
  134. Bacilliary dysentary
    Campylobacter jejuni
  135. Onset 15-50 days
    Hepatitis A
  136. Genus with over 2400 serovars
    Salmonella enteriditis
  137. Causes abortions
    Listeria monocytogenes
  138. Most common cause of FBI in US
  139. Disease name Salmonellosis
    Salmonella enteriditis
  140. Occurs in the Gulf Coast
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  141. Infective dose 1-10 cells
    Salmonella Typhi
  142. Metallic green/turquoise diarrhea
  143. Problem in warmer months
    Vibrio vulnificus
  144. Formally known as Norwalk A
  145. Four phases of the bacterial growth curve
    Lag, log, stationary, death
  146. Temperature abuse of foods can occur at what four stages in food service
    Holding, Cooling, Storing, Cooking/Prepping
  147. List 4 types of microorganisms
    Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Parasites
  148. MAP
    modified atmosphere packaging
  149. TCS
    Time/temp control for safety
  150. ROP
    reduced oxygen packaging
  151. CDC
    centers for disease control
  152. T/F Microaerophiles require small quantities of oxygen to grow
  153. T/F Sugar is a humectant that increases the water activity
  154. T/F Salmonella pullorum is found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs
  155. T/F Listeria Monocytogenes naturally found in soil, water, plants
  156. T/F The FDA food code is updated every year
  157. T/F Allicin in garlic is a naturally occuring compound that inhibits bacterial growth
  158. Eight symptoms commonly associated with food allergies
    • Loss conciousnes/death
    • Swelling of face, eyes, hands, feet
    • Itching of the mouth, face, scalp
    • contriction in the throat
    • Wheezing/diff breathing
    • gastrointestinal symptoms
    • flushing of the skin
    • hives
  159. Calculate BP
    Elevation divided by 550 and answer subtracted from 212
  160. Proper handwashing procedure
    • wet hands with hottest water you can stand
    • apply soap and work up a lather
    • scrub hands, arms, under fingernails, between fingers for 10-15 sec
    • Rinse with running water
    • dry hands with single use towel or blow dryer
  161. Thermometer for stew
    thermocoupling with immersion probe
  162. measure temp of a griddle with
    Infrared thermometer
  163. measure temp of a roast
    bimetallic stem thermometer
  164. measure temp of hamburger patty
    thermocoupling with penetration probe
  165. Lag
    initial contamination (cold storage)
  166. Log
    increased temperature before cooking - food prep
  167. Stationary phase
    cooking phase - cooks on outside while reproduces on inside, so it evens out
  168. Reasons for death phase
    • lack of nutrients
    • accumulation of waste
    • accumulation of toxins
  169. F in FATTOM
    Food - nutients like starches and proteins
  170. A - in FATTOM
    Acidity - 4.6 - 7.5 pH
  171. O in FATTOM
  172. M in FATTOM
    Moisture - Aw of more than .85
  173. TT in FATTOM
    • Temperature - TDZ 41 - 135
    • Time - 4 hours or more in TDZ
  174. Grows at room temp
  175. grows in hot temps
  176. grows in cold temps
  177. Survives in hot temps
  178. survives in cold temps
  179. only grows in absence of oxygen
    obligate anaerobe
  180. grows with or without oxygen
    facultative anaerobe
  181. requires small quantities of oxygen
  182. example of a biological structure
    skin, rinds, shell
  183. ____ million cases annually
  184. ________ hospitalizations
  185. ______ deaths
  186. toxin elaborated outside of cell into food
  187. produced in cell and remains until cell ruptures or dies
  188. Enterotoxin
  189. Neurotoxin
    central nervous system
  190. Nephrotoxin
  191. Hepatoxin
  192. Never hold brewed tea at room temperature for more than _____
    12 hours
  193. When cooling hot foods, they need to be cooled from _____*F to ______*F within ______(amount of time), and ______ to _______ in ______
    • 135-70 2
    • 70-41 4
  194. When reheating food, the food must be heated to ___________ within ______
    165 for 15 sec within 2 hours
  195. When holding TCS foods, temp must be checked every _____ hours
  196. When holding hot TCS foods, the minimum temp must be
  197. When holding cold foods, the minimum temp must be
  198. What are the rules for holding a cold food without temperature control?
    It should be labeled with a time it was made and a time it should be discarded (6 hours later). It should never get below 70*F
  199. GAP
    good agricultural practices
  200. GMP
    good manufacturing practices
  201. CCP
    critical control point
  202. HACCP
    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
  203. FIFO
    First in First Out
  204. UHT
    Ultra High Temperature
  205. TTI
    time temperature indicator
  206. Richard decides that the pork used to make pulled pork needs to be cooked to a minimum of 145
    Establish critical limits
  207. Sue is reviewing the menu items to identify which foods are TCS foods. She identifies chicken breast and makes note of Salmonella
    identify the hazard
  208. Tom throws the chowder out
    corrective actions
  209. Parts of a bimetallic thermometer
    • Temp head
    • Calibration nut
    • holding pin
    • stem
    • sensing area
    • dimple
  210. Acceptable methods for thawing
    • Refridgeration
    • Using clean running tap water in a sink that is less than 70*F for no more than 2 hours
    • Microwaving - used immediately
    • Room temp for no more than 2 hours
  211. Calibrate a bi-metallic thermometer using the ice bath method
    • 1. get a container filled with crushed ice and potable water
    • 2. place thermometer in ice bath and make sure sensing area is submerged for at least 30 seconds
    • 3. Holdhead of the thermometer with a wrench and turn temp head until reaches a steady reading of 32 *F
  212. Stages of the flow of food
    Purchasing, Recieving, Storing, freezing/holding, prepping, cooking, cooling, reheating, serving
  213. Two methods for propper cooling of food products
    • an ice paddle
    • a blast chiller
  214. A physical link between potable and non potable water is called a
    cross connection
  215. The problem that can result from a cross connection is
  216. backflow can be prevented by use of a
    vacuum breaker
  217. the most effective way to prevent back flow is use of an
    air gap
  218. USDA creates and enforces regulations pertaining to
    meat, poultry, dairy, and shell eggs
  219. USDHHs
    US Department of Health and Human Sciences
  220. FDA regulates
    everything except for red meat, poultry, and shell eggs
  221. Histamie associated poisoning
    scombroid poisoning
  222. what is pasteurization
    heating to a very high temperature for a few seconds to kill pathogens
  223. Four reasons for rejecting canned foods
    • can is dented
    • can is swollen
    • has an off-odor
    • milky substance
  224. Produces neurotoxin that blocks the release of acetocoline in the nerve synapse causing an interruption of the electrical signal which results in paralysis
    clostridium botulinum
  225. T/F Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes low grade fever and chills
  226. Three types of foodborne illness
    • Intoxication
    • Infection
    • Toxin mediated
  227. Clostridium perfringens is found in what habitat
    soil, air, water, gi tract
  228. Two forms produced by bacillus cereus
    • diarrheal
    • emetic
  229. T/F Symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus can occur in 6 hrs or less
  230. What percent of the population carries Staphylococcus aureus?
  231. Clostridium botulinum is a ______ anaerobe
  232. Duration of clostridium botulinum
    10 days
  233. Name 3 foodborne intoxications
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Bacillus cereus
  234. T/F Bacillus cereus requires a high infective dose
  235. What temperature do you cook rice to?
  236. Known to cause mastitis in cattle
    staphylococcus aureus
  237. T/F Flies are carriers of stapylococcus aureus
  238. Three ways of preventing transfer of staph
    • Restrict those with infection
    • Cover wounds
    • Wash hands
  239. Double vision is a symptom of what
  240. T/F Turkey is a common source for clostridium perfringens
  241. Habitat of Ecoli
    GI tract of animals
  242. explosive diarrhea is a symptom of
    clostridium perfringens
  243. prevent clostridium perfringens by
    cooking dressing seperate from turkey
  244. 50% death rate without medical treatment
    clostridium botulinum
  245. What can cause histamine to form in tuna?
    Time-temp abuse
  246. List two cestodes and the animals they are associated with
    • taenia saginatta - cattle
    • taenia solium - swine
  247. Aspergillus flavis produces a mycotoxin called
  248. Three signs of yeast spoilage
    • slime layer
    • bubbles
    • alcohol odor
  249. Onset and duration of trichinella spiralis
    • Onset: 0-28 days
    • Duration: 1-6 wks
  250. Identify the bacteria:
    I do not need oxygen to grow
    I cause double vision and diff. swallowing
    I am commonly associated with produce from the soil
    I produce a deadly toxin when food is temperature abused
    clostridium botulinum
  251. Name 3 elements that are defense threats for establishments
    • Human
    • Interior
    • Exterior
  252. The type of enterovirulent E. coli that produces a disease similar to shigellosis
  253. HUS causes
    kidney damage
  254. Describe in detail how to calibrate a bimetallic thermometer by the ice point method
    • Fill a large container with crushed ice and tap water
    • Stir well
    • Insert thermometer stem up to sensory area into the water for 30 seconds
    • Do not touch bottom or sides
    • Rotate calibration nut until it reads 32 F
  255. BP drops ___ for every ____ft increase in elevation
    • 1 F
    • 550
  256. Used to measure temp of surface of food and equipment
    Infrared thermometer
  257. This type of thermometer is used to monitor internal temperature of a hamburger patty
    thermocouple thermometer with penetration probe
  258. Describe the steps in the boiling point method for caliberating a thermometer
    • put potable water in a pot
    • boil the water
    • place thermometer in the boiling water, no touching the bottom or side of pot
    • make sure the sensor area is submerged for at least 30 seconds
    • Hold thermometer with wrench and rotate until reading says 212 F
  259. What is the contaminant in scombroid poisoning and how does the product become contaminated. What is the implicated food? How can scombroid poisoning be prevented?
    Scombroid is a histamine. The histadine gets turned into a histamine through a spoilage bacteria called a proteus. The implicated foods are tuna, bonita, and mahi-mahi. Prevention is to control time and temperature abuse during storage and preparation
  260. Describe in detail the disease syndrome caused by Trichinella spiralis (onset, symptoms, and duration)
    Onset is 2 - 28 days, and duration is 1 -6 weeks. There are three stages of Trichinella spiralis. The first is the intestinal phase - nausea, vomiting, and ab cramps. Second phase is the muscle invasion in which the larvae matures in 5 - 7 days and causes edema, muscle pain, and remittent fever. Third is the convalescent phase which is a very slow recovery.
  261. Check temp of soup with a(n)
    immersion probe
  262. List the parts of a bimetallic thermometer
    • temp head
    • calibration nut
    • holding pin
    • stem
    • sensing area
    • dimple
  263. List the stages in the flow of food
    • purchasing
    • receiving
    • storing
    • freezing/holding
    • preping
    • cooking
    • cooling
    • reheating
    • serve
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