1. What effects the rate of aging? (4)

    • Lifestyle:
    • Food choices, exercise, abuses (smoking, drugs, etc.)

    • Environment
    • Income, education level, health care, etc.
    • Environmental (physical) – air quality, toxins, etc.

    Gender - women live longer

    Heredity - (30-50%) Its in your GENES.
  2. What is Calorie Restriction and how does it benefit your longevity?
    Reducing your calorie intake to prolong life.
  3. What was the importance of "Blue Zone", the book written by Buettner?
    A population in Albert Lea, MN, focused on 4 areas to promote WEIGHT LOSS.

    • 1) Move (active lifestyle)
    • 2) Right Outlook (Positive outlook)
    • 3) Eat wisely (Fruits/veggies, etc.)
    • 4) Connection (w/ family, friends, etc.)
  4. Why do we age? (5)

    1) Cumulative damage to DNA, proteins, cells, etc.

    2) Change in hormones

    3) Cells reach their division potential

    4) Excess energy intake

    5) Weakening immune system
  5. Nutrient Needs During Adulthood. Describe the needs based on the below:

    Protein & Fat
    Calories – In general, needs slowly decline after ~age 30.

    Protein/Fat – Needs are similar throughout adulthood and for most people.

    Carbs – Maintain adequate fiber intakes.

    Water – Many elderly have mild dehydration due to reduced sensitivity to thirst signals and because of ostomy (reduced ability of kidney’s to concentrate urine).
  6. Minerals & Vitamins.

    Describe the importance of:

    Calcium & Vitamin D
    Important to prevent or minimize osteoporosis.

    Most elderly diets inadequate.

    • Iron:
    • Less common in elderly women following menopause.
    • Some GI-related issues can still cause iron deficiency and anemia.

    • Zinc/Magnesium:
    • Many are deficient, which may contribute to aging-related processes.
  7. Minerals & Vitamins (continued, 2)

    Describe the importance of:

    Folate & Vitamin B-6/B-12
    Vitamin E (anti-oxidants)
    Carotenoids (anti-oxidants)
    • Folate & Vitamin B-6/B-12:
    • Elderly often to not get enough.
    • Partially due to decreased absorption.

    • Vitamin E (anti-oxidant):
    • Most adults have inadequate intakes.

    • Carotenoids:
    • Eat your veggies – carotenoids may protect against a wide-range of ageing-related conditions.
  8. What are the FACTORS influencing nutrient needs in aging?

    Physical & Physiological.

    Decrease (2)
    Reduced (2)
    Decrease in muscle mass and increase in fat mass alters metabolic rate

    Decrease in bone density alters calcium and Vit D needs

    Reduced cardiovascular and respiratory function affects the entire body

    Reduced function of the GI tract and related organs
  9. More FACTORS influencing nutrient needs in aging.

    Physical & Physiological.
    • Reduced function of urinary system impairs reabsorption
    • of some nutrients (e.g. glucose, amino acids),Vit D synthesis (from skin) and removal of wastes

    Alterations in nervous system has whole-body effects

    Gradual insulin resistance alters glucose metabolism

    Disease or medications
  10. What are the FACTORS influencing nutrient needs in aging?

    Psychological & Economic.
    • Psychological:
    • A positive attitude
    • Many elderly are depressed
    • Affects appetite and food choices
    • Social withdrawal

    • Economic:
    • Insufficient income or increased expenses
    • (often tied to specialized living: senior center, etc.)
  11. Exercise.

    Describe the benefits of:

    Strength training
    Flexibility training
    Aerobic training
    Strength training - slows muscle loss and weight gain

    Flexibility training - prevents stiffness and risk of injury

    Aerobic training - helps cardiac & respiratory function.
  12. Nutrition-Related Health Issues of the Adult Years.

    (Aside from cancer, diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, etc.)

    Alcohol Use
    Slowed Restoration of Homeostasis
    Alzheimer's Disease
    • Alcohol Use
    • Tolerance decreases with aging.
    • Abuse can occur due to depression and isolation.
    • Consequences of earlier alcohol abuse.

    • Slowed restoration of homeostasis:
    • “I can’t ______ like I used to”.
    • Slowed response to return body to “normal” state.

    Alzheimer's Disease - Progressive deterioration of brain function.

    • Decrease risk - fruits, veggies, fish, unsat. fats, nuts
    • Increases risk - saturated fats, RED MEAT

    • Arthritis – Degeneration of cartilage that covers joints
    • No dietary component has been conclusively shown to affect arthritis.
    • Possible benefit of omega-3 fatty acids.
    • Maintaining a healthy body weight is important.
Card Set
Nutrition - Adult Years