who is the father of oceanography?
what were some of the contributions of the greeks and romans?
calculated latitude and circumference of the earth.
what was the first voyage designed to collect data?
what are marine chronometers?
keep accurate time at sea
what current did ben franklin help to chart in the atlantic?
the gulf stream
how did WWII contribute to oceanography studies?
u-boat led to echo sounder (SONAR)
when did oceans first develop?
4 billion years ago
what kind of crust makes up the ocean floor? what kind makes up most of continental crust?
- ocean crust: basalt
- continental crust: granite
what are the major bodies of water on earth? around which ocean is the "ring of fire" located?
- major bodies: atlantic, pacific, indian, arctic, and southern oceans
- ring of fire located in pacific ocean
what are the earth's layers?
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
where are the youngest seafloor rocks found?
mid ocean ridge
what drives the movement of plates?
convection currents in the mantle
who developed the idea of continental drift?
what are the 3 types of plate boundaries and what is happening at each?
- transform: sliding past each other
- divergent: moving apart
- convergent: come together
what is subduction?
when one plate slides under another
where would mid ocean ridges be found?
why are satellites used to map the ocean floor?
satellites are faster, accurate, and more efficient
about how fast are crustal plates moving?
- 3-11 cm a year
- the rate at which your fingernails grow
what seafloor features would you find as you move from the coast out into the ocean?
continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise, abyssal plain
what is the flat area of seafloor that makes up most of the ocean basins, and is found in deep water areas?
what causes submarine canyons?
when and where were hydrothermal vents first discovered?
1977 near galapagos
how hot can it get at a hydrothermal vent?
380 degrees C or 716 degrees F
what organisms do you typically find around a vent?
tubeworms, vent shrimp, limpets, serpund, shrimp, mussels
describe the relationship between tubeworms and bacteria. how do bacteria provide food for hydrothermal vent communities?
bacteria oxidize hydrogen sulfide for organisms
coral reefs provide a home for ____ of all marine species.
what is the main body structure of a coral?
how do corals (animals) get the food they need? describe their symbiotic relationship.
the animal eats zooplankton, provides oxygen, coral provides shelter and protection
how can sediments endanger a reef system?
smothers the coral and makes it hard to get nutrients
what are the two types of corals and the differences between them?
- soft: protein or calcium carbonate
- hard: calcium carbonate
what is coral bleaching? what causes it?
water is too warm so coral expels algae causing it to turn white
what are 3 types of coral reefs and characteristics of each?
- atoll: circular, surrounding central lagoon
- barrier: parallel to shore
- fringing: fairly close to shore, may have to lagoon
describe water's chemical structure and properties.
- pH: 7
- density: 1
- boiling point: 100 degrees C
- freezing point: 0 degreees C
what are some of the sources of the oceans salts?
erosion of rocks, shells, hydrothermal vents
where would you expect the salinity to be highest: open ocean or coastal areas? why?
open ocean, there is no fresh water run off
describe the density differences between fresh and saltwater; betwseen cold and warm water.
saltwater and cooler water are more dense
what is pH, what is the pH of ocean water, and what are buffers?
- pH is the H+ ions in a solution
- the pH of water is 8-9
- buffers: help maintain pH levels
what salt is most abundant in seawater?
what is a hydrometer? refractometer?
- hydrometer: measures salinity based on gravity
- refractometer: measures salinity based on light index
which color of light penetrates deepest in the ocean?
what is the area of light penetration called?
what is the SOFAR channel?
sound fixing and ranging
what is a sediment?
eroded particles and debris that settle on the ocean floor. (organic and inorganic)
what are some reasons to study marine sediments (why are they important)?
- resources (oil, sand, and cement)
- document evolution of life
what are sizes of sediments and how are they measured?
- wentworth scale
- clay, silt, sand, gravel
why has much of the ocean's sediment record been "lost" over time?
continents shift causing sediments to shift down
what are the four groups of sediments, and what are examples of each?
- lithogenous: quartz
- biogenous: wood
- hydrogenous: manganese nodule
- cosmogenous: tektites
what are the two major forces that determine global air circulation?
uneven solar heating and coriolis effect
how are hurricanes ranked? describe how hurricanes form. what is the difference between a hurricane and a typhoon?
- ranked on staffir- simpson scale
- hurricanes form with warm moist air
- hurricanes and typhoons are the same thing, just called different names
what are convection cells? how does air move within them (talk about density)?
less dense hor air rises --> cools and becomes more dense
what are the wind currents within the different convection cells (look at latitude of the cells)?
- polar easterlies: 60 and 60
- ferrel westerlies: 30-60
- hadley tradewinds: 0-30
what is the coriolis effect why does it happen? how does how is it different in northern and southern hemispheres?
- effects rotation causing air to circulate
- north: right/clockwise
- south: left/counterclockwise
what are differences between land and sea breezes?
- land: blows to sea
- sea: blows to land
what is the difference between surface and deep water circulation? what drives each?
- surface: wind circulation driven by friction between water and wind
- deep: thermohaline circulation caused by density and temperature
what are gyres? how do they move in the northern and southern hemispheres?
- gyres: ocean currents moving in circular patterns
- north: right/clockwise
- south: left/counterclockwise
waht are differences between ocean currents on the eastern sides of ocean basins vs western sides?
- east: slow moving, wide, cold water
- west: fast moving, narrow, warm water
what is the overall purpose of wind/air and water circulation?
create thermal balance
what is the eckman spiral?
caused by friction, spirals outward
what is el nino? when does it happen? how often does it happen? what effects does it have?
- seasonal change of climate
- happens around christmas
- every 3-7 years
- causes storms, mudslides, snowstorms
what is downwelling?
waters push towards the surface
which would have more nutrients and oxygen: cold water or warm water?
the ultimate source for ocean and air currents is the ____.