What is the Strip Ph principle?
- Double indicator system
- Methy red-4.4-6.6
- Bromothymol blue-6-7.6
What are interferences for strip Ph?
Old urines give a false alkaline due to ammonia formation.
Falsely acidic with protein runover
What is the principle of strip protein?
Protein error of indicators
What are the false positives for Protein?
- high alkalline urine because it overrides the buffer
What type of globulins originate in the urinary tract?
Tamm Horsfall protein
What are causes of Proteinuria?
- Prerenal- myoglobin, hemoglobin, bence jones protein.
- Renal- glomerula disease
- glomerular damage
- exercise, fever, extreme cold, orthostatic
- Postrenal- inflammation malignancy, bladder injury
What can detect early signs of kidney problems?
albumin in urine
What are three techniques to measure albumin in urine?
- Random urine- normal <30-300 ug albumin/mg creatinine
- 24 hour collection- 30-300mg
- Timed specimen to determine albumin excretion- 20-200 mg/min
What is orthostatic proteinuria?
Protein positive during day when standing up and negative when asleep or laying down.
Classic test for Bence Jones Protein?
- Coagulates and precipitates at 40-60 C
- Dissolves at 100 C
- Filter and observe for turbidity at 40-60C
What is significance of Bence jones proteins?
What is principle of glucose strip?
uses glucose oxidase method with peroxidase
What are false negatives for glucose?
- ascorbic acid
- high bacteria count
- low temp or high ketones
- homogentisic acid
What are fase positives for urine glucose?
What is the principle of clinitest for glucose?
ability of glucose to reduce copper sulfate to cuprous oxide in presence of heat and alkali.
What are interfenrences of clinitest?
Other reducing sugars like lactose, fructose, galactose, maltose, pentose, ascorbic acid
What are ketones?
Products of fat metabolism
What are the three types of ketones?
- 2% acetone
- 20% acetoacetic acid-detected with sodium nitro prusside
- 78% beta hydorxybutyric acid-not detected
False negatives with ascorbic acid?
False negative for Nitrite?
- Vegatable diet
- ascorbic acid
- not all bacteria react