1. gaining new perspectives
    evidence based treatment: medication, cognitive behaviorial therapy (neg. cogn triad, alter feelings state), dialectical behaivor treatment (step learning process), interpersonal therapy (16-20wks, focus on here and now), positive psychology interventions (broaden and build theory)

    working with feelings: direct (open ended), indirect (third person, stories), discrimination from one feeling to another, magaging/containing feelings

    creating and enhancing pos feelings: focus on achievemnts, sucess stories, "three good things" pos relationships

    gaining new perspective: show pos, obs of stuck, introduce new topics, alt perspectives

    working for social change: viewing themselves as the problem, rather than having problems
  2. changing behaviors
    identifying behaviors to change and new skills to learn: ambivlance can occur

    behaviorial techniques for helping people change what they do: set priorities, step by step, modeling, rehearse, reinforcement, validate
  3. working with people in crisis
    PTSD-reaction to serious or life threatening event or perceived trauma

    trauma: affect overall functioning, challenges ind'l- microaggression (acts of exclusion, victimizaiton, intimidation, and steotrypes.), insidious trauma (evolves from onggoing experience of denigratio), secondary trauma (tramatic exp to hearing about/ witnessing event)

    • common features of a crisis:
    • 1. precipitating or triggering effect (situational, developmental, environmental, compound)
    • 2. The person perceives the event as a danger, loss,or threat.
    • 3. Customary coping methods do not work or are inadequate to the degree of threat.
    • 4. The person feels overwhelmed, anxious,disoriented, or uncertain.
    • 5. Destabilization provides opportunity to restabilize
    • 6. window of opportunitiy during crisis when a person is particulary amenable to assistance

    crisis intervention: help, focus on strengh and needs, validate, reduce stress, est a baseline, involve fam or friends, make meaing, risk assessment, folllow-up

    clinicans in crisis: pay attention to warning signs

    dealing with crisis: group process, list risks, rank, ethical consideration,
  4. endings and transitions
    • coming to a close: ending can be planned, natural step, initiated by client or couselor
    • termination: formal process of ending
    • foreshadowing: forecasting an ending, goals, prepare

    • couselor-initiated ending: couselors in training- consult with supervisor, convo early, after goals are attained, no progress toward goals
    • client-initiated ending: goals met, doesnt agree
    • outside forces precipitate ending: insuracne, spouse, agency closing, out of thier control
    • ending to late/soon: client abandoment

    tasks of ending:
  5. professional issues
    self care

    ongoing education: consultation,
  6. grading rubric
    greeting and welcoming: saying hello, making client feel welcome, offer a beverage or a place to sit

    non-verbal communication/ attending: SOLER (sit squarely, open posture, lean forward, eye contact, relax) appearance, body posture, gestures, facial expression,

    listening/ validating clients story: endorse and apprechiate, universalizing to undercut isolation

    warmth and caring: show that you care, feeling of trust, empathy,

    specific and concrete goal setting:
  7. concepts
    • personal values
    • professional ethics
    • confidentiality
    • duty to warn
    • muliple or dual relationships
    • competance: are you able to help client, willing to bring others in for help
    • empathy: show you care and client perspective but also look from an outsiders perspective
    • attending to self:
    • clinical repose: relaxed, attentive, reasurring steadiness of clinical reliablilty
    • client expectations: set clear boundaries from beginning, understand what the client would like to get out of session
    • assessement: asses the situation, both client and counselor
    • goal setting: what kinds of goals do they want to set short term or long term?
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