Psychology Final Sect 3

  1. Thinking
    the mental manipulation of information via images or concepts. Thinking is also called
  2. concepts
    groupings of similar objects, events, ideas or people.
  3. critical thinking
    conscious direction of mental processes usually in order to find solution to problems
  4. analysis
    divergent thinking
    convergent thinking
    steps of critical thinking
  5. Analysis (critical thinking)
    break down whole into parts
  6. Sythesis (critical thinking)
    integrating parts (components) into a whole
  7. Divergent Thinking (critical thinking)
    form variety of possible solutions to a problem
  8. Convergent Thinking (critical thinking)
    variety of possible ideas boiled down (converged into) one best answer
  9. Critical Thinking
    Reproductive Thinking
    Productive Thinking
    Subtypes of Thinking
  10. Reproductive Thinking
    • make use of what is already known
    • ex: apply formulas learned to new math problem
  11. Productive Thinking
    • insight that goes beyond the bounds of existing associations
  12. Mental Set
    Functional Fixedness
    Expert v. Novices
    Approaches to Problem Solving
  13. Mental Set
    • frame of mind leading you to think of problem in a particular way (“entrenchment”)
    • leading solver to focus or fixate on a strategy that normally works
  14. Functional Fixedness
    inability to recognize that something that is normally used a certain way can be used for other functions or in another way
  15. Expert Vs. Novices
    • When one compares novices to experts, research shows that novices tend to:
    • 1) focus on surface features
    • 2) have less knowledge
    • 3) have knowledge not as well organized
    • 4) set unrealistic goals
    • 5) not be as able to divide a problem into levels
  16. Utility Maximization Theory
    we tend to make decisions in such a way to maximize pleasure and minimize pain (and usually, minimize effort as well).
  17. Subjective Utility Theory
    each person has distinct values to attribute towards various decisions—often based on hopes, fears, motivations, or prior experiences.
  18. Utility Maximization Theory
    Subjective Utility Theory
    2 Theorys of Decision Making
  19. Hueristics
    rules of thumb for making decisions—a simple thinking strategy
  20. Representativeness Hueristic
    Availiability Hueristic
  21. Base Rate
    the actual prevalence of an event or characteristic within a population of events or characteristics—how likely something is to occur or be a certain way.
  22. Representativeness Hueristic
    • we tend to judge the probability of an uncertain event based on:
    • a) how obviously similar uncertain event is to population from which it comes
    • b) degree to which uncertain event reflects salient features of the process by which it is generated
    • c) thus, make decisions based on stereotypes/stereotypes/preconceived notions of what to expect
  23. Availability Heuristic
    • we tend to make judgments of events/characteristics on basis of the ease that particular examples or relevant ideas come to mind.
    • recent and/or meaningful events come easily to mind, and we are thinking that it happens often.
  24. overconfidence
    gambler's fallacy
    confirmation bias
    types of Biases
  25. Overconfidence (bias)
    we excessively value our own skills, knowledge, or judgment
  26. Gambler's Fallacy (bias)
    when sequence of coincidental events appear to be in nonrandom order we expect subsequent events to deviate from the observed pattern
  27. Confirmation Bias
    • the tendency to pursue a hypothesis/idea that already agrees (in general) with prior expectations or desired outcomes
    • we tend to search for and see information that confirms our pre-existing perceptions/expectations.
  28. Framing
    • the way an issue is posed or presented affects how we process the information.
    • Framing can significantly affect our judgments and decisions.
    • ex: news cast, sound bites
  29. g factor
    (by Spearman)
    underlies all of our intelligent behavior, whatever that behavior may be.
  30. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition
    • the most popular IQ assessments today
    • WISC-IV
    • high predictive validity
  31. Sternberg and Gardner
    2 recent expansions on the definition and assessment of IQ are from who
  32. Analytical Intelligence
    • involved ability to acquire, store, and process information
    • mental processes that foster efficient learning, remembering, and thinking
    • Note: closest to the conventional definitions of intelligence
  33. Creative Intelligence
    • involves abilities to use insight and creativity
    • the capacity to be flexible and innovative when dealing with new situations—or when reworking an old situation.
  34. Practical Intelligence
    • involves the ability to think practically
    • Enables a person to adapt their abilities to the demands of the situation or context.
    • “street smarts.”
  35. Creativity
    • Novel, unusual behavior/thinking/skill performed in appropriate manners...not deviance
    • creativity NOT intelligence
  36. Emotional Intelligence
    The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
  37. Perceive (emotional intelligence)
    to recognize emotions in faces, voices, art, music
  38. Understand (emotional intelligence)
    to predict and see how they relate and interact
  39. Manage (emotional intelligence)
    to know how to use them in various situations
  40. Use (emotional intelligence)
    to apply to adaptive or creative thinking
  41. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
    • Verbal/Linguistic
    • Mathematical/Logical
    • Visual/Spatial
    • Kinesthetic (movement)/Body
    • Self-reflective/Self-understanding
    • Interpersonal/Social-understanding
    • Musical
    • Naturalistic
  42. Verbal/Linguistic
    ability to use language
  43. Mathematical/Logical
    ability to think logically and solve mathematical problems
  44. Visual/Spatial
    understand how objects are oriented in space
  45. Kinesthetic/Body
    ability to control one’s body movements
  46. Self-reflective/Self understanding
    understanding one’s own emotions and motivations
  47. Interpersonal/Social-understandings
    sensitivity to others, understanding the motivation of others
  48. Musical
    ability to compose and/or perform music
  49. Naturalistic
    ability to recognize patterns in nature
Card Set
Psychology Final Sect 3
Section 3 Cognition and Intelligence