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  1. Phylum Hemichordata alternate name? Characteristics? Embryology?
    • AKA “Lesser deuterostome”
    • Dorsal nerve tube, gill slits, notochord
    • Eucoelomate
    • Acorn worm has characteristics of chordates and echinoderms (proboscis, trunk, and collar)
  2. 5 main characteristics of chordates
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal nerve tube
    • Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches)
    • Thyroid gland (endostyle)
    • Postanal tail
  3. Notochord characteristics + layers?
    • Flexible rod that allows forward/backward movement
    • Notochord becomes vertebral column in humans
    • Layer 1 is living cells
    • Layer 2 (fibrous sheath) is connective tissue
    • Layer 3 (elastic sheath) is connective tissue
  4. What is a cladogram?
    Branching diagram showing the pattern of sharing evolutionary derived characteristics among species of higher taxa
  5. Describe the evolution/formation of the gill
    • Originally comprised of pharynx and mouth
    • Pharynx becomes powerful, and gill slits are added behind pharynx
    • Pharynx and gill slits developed capillaries to allow for respiration
  6. Subphylum Urochordata organism? Characteristics?
    • Tunicata
    • Has tunic (outer layer) made of cellulose!!
    • Free swimming larva
    • Adults are sessile
    • Notochord and tail disappear in adult
    • Endostyle secretes mucus
  7. Subphylum Cephalochordata organism? Characteristics?
    • Amphioxus
    • All 5 characteristics of chordates
    • No heart, but still has closed circulatory system
  8. Subphylum vertebrata organism? Characteristics?
    • Lamprey
    • Living endoskeleton (internal)
    • Pharynx and efficient respiration
    • Close circulatory system with capillaries
    • Paired limbs (important evolutionary adaptation)
    • Advance nervous system (important evolutionary adaptation)
  9. Lamprey subphylum? Characteristics? Tail?
    • Subphylum vertebrata
    • Largest ectoparasite on earth (attaches to fish gill)
    • Anadromous
    • Diphycercal caudal fin
  10. Anadromous vs catadromous + examples?
    • Anadromous: fish that migrates from the ocean to fresh water stream to spawn (salmon, lamprey)
    • Catadromous: fish that migrate from fresh water to the ocean to spawn (eel)
  11. Study of fish? Body temperature regulation? Types? Evolutionary aspect?
    • Icthyology
    • Ectothermic (body temp changes based on environment. Not identical, but influenced)
    • Jawless fish: Hagfish and Lamprey
    • Jawed fish: bony or cartilaginous
    • Vertebral column replaced the notochord
  12. Information about a shark?
    • Cartilaginous fish with jaw and teeth
    • Ampullary organs of Lorenzini: located throughout animal, but most concentrated in the head. Electrochemical sensors that detect vibration in water
  13. 3 types of caudal fin w/ small description and examples
    • Heterocercal: two parts look different (shark)
    • Diphycercal: 3 lobed, looks rounded (lung fish, lamprey)
    • Homocercal: two parts look same (perch, bass)
  14. 4 types of scales w/ types of fish (not specific)
    • Placoid: cartilaginous fish
    • Ganoid: nonteleost fish (ancient fish, have bone)
    • Ctenoid: teleost fish (modern bony fish)
    • Cycloid: teleost fish (modern bony fish)
  15. Amphibians – name of study? Characteristics? Special anatomy? Reproduction?
    • Herpetology
    • Amphibians have 1 portion of life in water and 1 portion of life on land
    • Ectothermic (body temp changes based on environment. Not identical, but influenced)
    • 3 chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle + spiral valve[keeps blood separate])
    • Some have poisonous skin
    • Respiration via mouth , skin, and lung
    • Brain has 10 cranial nerves
    • Amplexus: male clasps female and fertilizes eggs as they’re shed (frogs)
  16. Reptiles – name of study? Characteristics? Special anatomy?
    • Herpetology
    • First vertebrates on land (first invertebrates were Arthropods)
    • Occipital condyle
    • Three chambered heart (except crocodilians have four)
    • Brain has 12 cranial nerves
    • Outside temperature determines the sex of the animal (warm – male, cold – female)
  17. 3 Types of skulls?
    • Anapsid skull: no additional opening behind orbit (turtle)
    • Synapsid skull: 1 opening behind orbit (mammals)
    • Diapsid skull: 2 openings behind orbit (birds)
  18. Avians – name of study? Body temperature regulation? Ancient bird? Special anatomy?
    • Ornithology
    • Endothermic (body temperature doesn’t change based on external temperature)
    • Archaeopteryx lithographica
    • Sternum and keel (bone where many flight wings attach)
    • All have feathers
    • Not all can fly
    • Different types of feather (know vane type)
    • Different patterns of wings
    • Air sacs act as a reservoir which makes the animals “like a balloon”
    • Hollow bones (mostly spongy, very little compact)
  19. Mammals – egg laying? Marsupials? Hair info? Body temperature regulation? Digestive system info?
    • Only 2 – spiny anteater and duck-billed platypus
    • Have sac to keep young (opossum, kangaroo)
    • Functions of hair: protection, insulation, behavior
    • Homeothermic: body temperature does not change
    • Anapsid, diapsids, and synapsids
    • All have teeth except whales/anteaters
    • Insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores
    • Cecum: storage place for food after chewing w/ some digestion (insectivores have no cecum, herbivores have huge cecum, omnivores/carnivores have small cecum)
  20. Ma Earth’s party timeline
    • 5:00 AM – bacteria and cyanobacteria
    • 6:30 PM – first animals
    • 9:00 PM – Fish and shell fish
    • 9:15 PM – Corals
    • 10:00 PM – amphibians
    • 10:15 PM – insects
    • 10:20 PM – reptiles
    • 10:45 PM – Dinosaurs
    • 11:00 PM – Birds and small mammals
    • 11:38 – Dinosaur/other animal extinction
    • 11:58 PM – Hominids
    • 11:59:30 PM - Humans
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