Biology Semester 1 Lesson 3 Study Guide

  1. Define CELL WALL
    A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell.
  2. Define CYTOPLASM
    The region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton and all of the organelles except the nucleus.
  3. Define FLAGELLUM
    A long hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move.
    The steady state physiological condition of the body.
  5. Define ORGANELLE
    One of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific funciton.
    The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbondioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
  7. Define PLASTID
    An organelle of plant cells that contain specific substances and performs specific functions for the cell.
  8. Anchor the nucleus and other organelles to their places in the cell
    Intermediate filaments
  9. Function in muscle contraction and movement of cytoplasm
  10. Hollow tubes of the protein tubulin
  11. Long threads of protein actin
  12. Network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol
  13. Protein fibers coiled into cables
    Intermediate filaments
  14. Radiate outward from the centrosome; aid in organelle movement
  15. Short, hairlike structures on the outside of a cell; assist in movement
  16. Cells are limited in size by the _?_.

    A. Rate at which substances can enter the cell through its surface
  17. One difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells is that _?_.

    D. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound organelles
  18. Cells that have a high energy requirement generally have many _?_.

    D. Mitochondria
  19. The plasma membrane _?_.

    D. Is composed mainly of a phospholipid bilayer
  20. A group of similar cells that carry out a specific function is called a(n) _?_.

    B. Tissue
  21. A group of tissues that performs a particular tas is called a(n) _?_.

    C. Organ
  22. A group of organs that performs a particular task is called a(n) _?_.

    B. Organ system
  23. A combination of several organ systems that constitutes an independent individual is called a(n) _?_.

    B. Organism
  24. A collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a connected group is called a(n) _?_.

    D. Colony
  25. A dense area of DNA inside the nucleus of a cell is called the _?_.

    D. Nucleolus
  26. Plastids that use light energy to make carbohydrates are called _?_.

    A. Chloroplasts
  27. State the three parts of cell theory.
    • All living organisms are compared of one or more cells.
    • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.
    • Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells.
  28. List six characteristics that all living things share.
    • Organized parts
    • Obtain energy from their surroundings
    • Perform chemical reactions
    • Change with time
    • Respond to their environments
    • Reproduce
  29. List three structures found in plant cells that are not in animal cells.
    • Cell walls
    • Large centered vacuoles
    • Plastids
  30. Explain how prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ.
    Prokaryotes lack a membrand and nucleus, and membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotes have membrane organelles and membrand bound nucleus.
  31. What is the difference between integral proteins and peripheral proteins in a cell?
    Integral proteins are imbedded in the membrane, peripheral proteins only lie on one side of the membrand and are not embedded into it.
  32. Describe three roles played by integral proteins in a cell.
    • Cell surface marker
    • Receptor protein
    • Transport protein
    • Also form channels
  33. Explain, the fluid mosaic model used to describe a cell's plasma membrane.
    The fluid mosaic model says, phospholipid bilayers acts more as a liquid than a solid and always changes.
  34. Distinguish between rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and smooth ER. State the structure and function of each.
    Rough ER has flat sacs covered with ribosomes, the structure produces phospholipids and proteins. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes thus it is smooth, it functions by building lipids such as cholestoral.
  35. List the five steps of a protein synthesis in a cell.
    • 1. Proteins are assembled on the Rough ER
    • 2. Vesicles carry proteins from the Rough ER to the golgi apparatus
    • 3. Proteins are modified in the golgi apparatus and enter new vesicles
    • 4. Some vesicles release their proteins outside the sell
    • 5. Other vesicles remain in the cell and become lysosomes and other vesicles
  36. A system of membranous tubes and sacs which functions as an intracellular highway
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  37. Abundant in liver and kidney cells, where free radicals are neutralized
  38. Condensed structure of DNA and protein when a cell is about to divide
  39. Contains digestive enzymes that break down large molecules
  40. Controls most of the functions in a eukaryotic cell
  41. Found in the seeds of some plants; break down stored fat
  42. Houses and protects a eukaryotic cell's genetic information
  43. Long, thin structure of DNA when a cell is not dividing
  44. Made of protein and RNA; no membrane
  45. Site where DNA is transcribed into RNA
  46. Spherical organelle responsible for building protein
  47. Spherically shaped sac surrounded by a single membrane
    In some protists and in most plant cells, a large fluid filled organelle that stores water, enzymes metabolic and other materials.
  49. Define CENTRIOLE
    An organelle that is composed of 2 short microtubules at right angles to each other and that has an active role in mitosis.
  50. Define GOLGI COMPLEX
    Cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell.
    The double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
  52. Define THYKALOID
    A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
  53. Which term does not belong? Why?

    ribosome, central vacuole, mitochondrion, nucleus
    Central vacuole

    Is not part of an animal cell.
  54. Which term does not belong? Why?

    Prokaryote, eukaryote, organelle, nucleus

    Is not part of the eukaryotic system
  55. Which term does not belong? Why?

    Plastid, central vacuole, cell wall, nucleotoid

    Is not a cell that isnt in an animal cell, also is not part of a plant cell.
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Biology Semester 1 Lesson 3 Study Guide
Biology Semester 1 Lesson 3 Study Guide