IS300 Chap 13 Note

  1. 4 Structural organizational changes enabled by IT
    • 1.Automation
    • 2.Rationalization of procedures
    • 3.Business process redesign
    • 4.Paradigm shifts
  2. Automation
    • Increases efficiency
    • Replaces manual tasks
  3. Rationalization of procedures
    • Streamlines standard operating procedures
    • Often found in programs for making continuous quality improvements–Total quality management (TQM)–Six sigma
  4. .Business process redesign
    • Analyze, simplify, and redesign business processes
    • Reorganize workflow, combine steps, eliminate repetition
  5. Paradigm shifts
    • Rethink nature of business
    • Define new business model
    • Change nature of organization
  6. Business process management (BPM)
    • Variety of tools, methodologies to analyze, design, optimize processes
    • Used by firms to manage business process redesign
  7. Steps in BPM
    • 1.Identify processes for change
    • 2.Analyze existing processes
    • 3.Design the new process
    • 4.Implement the new process
    • 5.Continuous measurement
  8. Variety of tools for BPM
    • Identify and document existing processes
    • Identify inefficiencies
    • –Create models of improved processes
    • –Capture and enforce business rules for performing processes
    • –Integrate existing systems to support process improvements
    • –Verify that new processes have improved
    • –Measure impact of process changes on key business performance indicators
  9. Systems development:
    Activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunity
  10. 6 Systems development Process:
    • 1.Systems analysis
    • 2.Systems design
    • 3.Programming
    • 4.Testing
    • 5.Conversion
    • 6.Production and maintenance
  11. Systems analysis
    Analysis of problem to be solved by new system
  12. feasibility study
    • determine whether the solution is feasible, or achievable, from a financial, technical, and organizational standpoint
    • Is solution feasible and good investment?
    • Is required technology, skill available?
  13. information requirements
    • Who needs what information, where, when, and how
    • Define objectives of new/modified system
    • Detail the functions new system must perform
  14. Systems design
    • Describes system specifications that will deliver functions identified during systems analysis
    • Should address all managerial, organizational, and technological components of system solution
  15. Role of end users
    • User information requirements drive system building
    • Users must have sufficient control over design process to ensure system reflects their business priorities and information needs
    • Insufficient user involvement in design effort is major cause of system failure
  16. Programming:
    System specifications from design stage are translated into software program code
  17. Testing
    Ensures system produces right results
  18. Unit testing
    Tests each program in system separately
  19. System testing
    Test functioning of system as a whole
  20. Acceptance testing
    Makes sure system is ready to be used in production setting
  21. Test plan
    All preparations for series of tests
  22. Conversion
    Process of changing from old system to new system
  23. Four main conversion strategies
    • 1.Parallel strategy
    • 2.Direct cutover
    • 3.Pilot study
    • 4.Phased approach
  24. Production and maintenance
    • System reviewed to determine if revisions needed
    • May include post-implementation audit document
    • Maintenance
    • Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency
  25. methodologies for modeling and designing systems:
    • 1.Structured methodologies
    • 2.Object-oriented development
  26. Structured:
    Techniques are step-by-step, progressive
  27. Structured methodologies
    • Process-oriented: Focusing on modeling processes or actions that manipulate data
    • Separate data from processes
  28. Data flow diagram:
    • Primary tool for representing system’s component processes and flow of data between them
    • Offers logical graphic model of information flow
    • High-level and lower-level diagrams can be used to break processes down into successive layers of detail
  29. Process specifications:
    Describe transformation occurring within lowest level of data flow diagrams
  30. Structure chart:
    Top-down chart, showing each level of design, relationship to other levels, and place in overall design structure
  31. Object-oriented development
    Object is basic unit of systems analysis and design
  32. Object:
    • Combines data and the processes that operate on those data
    • Data encapsulated in object can be accessed and modified only by operations, or methods, associated with that object
    • Object-oriented modeling based on concepts of class and inheritance
  33. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
    Software tools to automate development and reduce repetitive work, including
  34. Alternative Systems-Building Methods
    • Traditional systems life-cycle
    • Prototyping
    • End-user development
    • Application software packages
    • Outsourcing
  35. systems life cycle:
    • Oldest method for building information systems
    • Phased approach divides development into formal stages
  36. Prototyping
    Building experimental system rapidly and inexpensively for end users to evaluate
  37. Prototype:
    Working but preliminary version of information system
  38. Steps in prototyping
    • 1.Identify user requirements
    • 2.Develop initial prototype
    • 3.Use prototype
    • 4.Revise and enhance prototype
  39. Advantages of prototyping
    • Useful if some uncertainty in requirements or design solutions
    • Often used for end-user interface design
    • More likely to fulfill end-user requirements
  40. Disadvantages of phototyping
    • May gloss over essential steps
    • May not accommodate large quantities of data or large number of users
    • May not undergo full testing or documentation
  41. End-user development:
    Uses fourth-generation languages to allow end-users to develop systems with little or no help from technical specialists
  42. Fourth generation languages:
    • software tools that enable end users to create reports or develop software applications iwth minimal or no technical assistance
    • Less procedural than conventional programming languages
  43. Fourth generation languages tools
    • PC software tools
    • Query languages
    • Report generators
    • Graphics languages
    • Application generators
    • Application software packages
    • Very high-level programming languages
  44. End-user development advantages:
    • More rapid completion of projects
    • High-level of user involvement and satisfaction
  45. End-user development disadvantages
    • Not designed for processing-intensive applications
    • Inadequate management and control, testing, documentation
    • Loss of control over data
  46. Request for Proposal (RFP)
    • Detailed list of questions submitted to packaged-software vendors
    • Used to evaluate alternative software packages
  47. Type of Outsourcing
    • Cloud and SaaS providers
    • External vendors
  48. Outsourcing advantages and disadvantages
    • Advantages
    • -Allows organization flexibility in IT needs
    • -Disadvantages
    • -Hidden costs, e.g.: Identifying and selecting vendor, Transitioning to vendor
    • -Opening up proprietary business processes to third party
  49. Rapid application development (RAD)
    Process of creating workable systems in a very short period of time
  50. Joint application design (JAD)
    • Used to accelerate generation of information requirements and to develop initial systems design
    • Brings end users and information systems specialists together in interactive session to discuss system’s design
    • Can significantly speed up design phase and involve users at intense level
  51. Agile development
    Focuses on rapid delivery of working software by breaking large project into several small sub-projects
  52. Component-based development
    • Groups of objects that provide software for common functions (e.g., online ordering)
    • can be combined to create large-scale business applications
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IS300 Chap 13 Note
note for chap 13