biology final

  1. Vesicles
    helps materials get in and out of the cell
  2. mitochondria
    • -powerhouse
    • -cells needing lots of energy need alot
    • -cells needing little energry need little
    • -double membraned
  3. Vacuoles
    a small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste.
  4. Plastids
    what Chloroplasts and Leucoplasts have
  5. Nucleolus
    • -where ribosomes are made
    • -rich in RNS and protein
  6. Chloroplasts
    where photosynthesis takes place
  7. Lysosome
    a particle in the cytoplasm of a cell containing a number of digestive enzymes capable of breaking down most of the constituents of living matter
  8. what are the two types of Ribosomes?
    • E.R. Ribosomes: bound
    • Cytoplasmic Ribosomes:Free
  9. Plasma Membrane
    • selective barrier, thereby regulating the cells chemical composition
    • -lipid bilayer
    • -acts as a liquid
  10. Chromatin
    • -Relaxed Chromosomes
    • -DNA
  11. Leucoplasts
    pigment bearing
  12. Chemosyntheic autotroph is for who?
    bacteria that get energy from chemicals
  13. Flagella
    • whiplike extension of certain cells that make movement.
    • -Sperm
  14. Cilia
    • -beat in series
    • -spiral like bullet
    • -universal
    • -carry up
  15. phototrophic is for who?
    • plants
    • -get energy from light
  16. Centrioles
    special centers that produce and organize micro tubules
  17. Ribosomes
    • Rich in RNA
    • Some on ER
    • Two types
  18. Cytoplasm
    • chemical composition
    • different fomr outside the cell
    • outside of the nucleus
  19. four classes of organic compounds that make up organisms.
    • 1.Carbs
    • 2.lipids
    • 3.proteins
    • 4. Nucleic
  20. Life
  21. pinocytosis
    • cell drinking
    • -Grabbing water
  22. phagocytosis
    bacteria eating
  23. factos that determing what gets in and out of a cell
    • 1. size of molecule
    • 2.Chemical composition
  24. Carbs are made of....
  25. what are lipids made of
    Fatty acids
  26. what proteins are made of
    amino acids
  27. Nucleic Acids are made of
    Sugar, nitrogren containing base, one or more phosphate groups.
  28. Characteristics of Life
    • movement, response to stimuli
    • reproduction--inheritance
    • receiving energy
  29. what do carbs do?
    provide energy
  30. Scientific Method
    • Hypothesis
    • Prediction
    • Experiment
    • Results
    • Conclusion
  31. What do lipids do?
    • -oils
    • -waxes
    • -lubricant
    • -insulation
    • -hormones
    • -outerboundary
  32. Heterotropic
    organissm that gets its energy from another organisms
  33. Biology
    the study of Life
  34. Autotrophic
    orgamisms that do not rely on other organisms for energy
  35. What do proteins do?
    • -hormonal
    • -enzymes-speed up reaction
  36. two kinds of autotrophs
    • 1. photo
    • 2. chemo
  37. Science
    No proof, descriptive, and organization
  38. Hypothesis
    Can be disproven
  39. theory
    Has not been disproved yet, scientific fact
  40. Endoplasmic reticulum
    pathways for information to flow from control center into cell where enzymes will be made
  41. Golgi Body
    • -Ships Cells out
    • -Packaging proteins for the cell
  42. Living cells
    Active processes can only occur in
  43. Nucleus
    membrane bound structure that contains ther cell's hereditary info and controls the cells growth and reproduction
  44. Active Transport
    movement of large non fatty molecules through protein channels where the protein litterally changes shape
  45. Facilitated Diffusion
    materials wrapped in fat diffusing across the membrane
  46. water moves
    the opposite direction of salts
  47. Faster it moves
    the hotter the particle
  48. air liquid and solid
    diffusion can occur in
  49. Diffusion
    particles move from an area they are concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated untill there is an equal number of particles in each area
  50. Dialysis
    diffusion of a dissolved salt across a semipermeable membrane
  51. Osmosis
    diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
  52. the slower it moves
    the larger the particle
  53. Prokaryotic
    Simple cell
  54. Cell theory States
    all organisms are made of cells or cell products and cells arise only from existing cells
  55. Cells are
    the fundememtal unit of life
  56. Eukaryotic
  57. Hydrolysis
    add water to break a molecule apart
  58. Nucleic acids
    • -enzyme carriers
    • -enzyme helpers
    • -messengers
    • -building blocks of DNA and RNA
  59. Gene pool
    all the genes in a population
  60. Population
    a group of orgamisns of the same species who live in a specific location and breed with one another more often than they breed with others
  61. Biological species
    a group of individuals that were either actively or potenitally interbreaking with one another but now with other groups
  62. Malthus
    populations grow faster than their food supply
  63. Lyell
    the earth is old
  64. Lamarck
    Theory of acquired characteristics. animals evolve
  65. mutations
    Errors that occur in DNA
  66. Genetic Drift
    change in allele frequencies in a population due to chance alone.
  67. gene flow
    the movement of alleles into and out of a population as by indiviual that immigrate and emigrate
  68. natural selection
    a process of evolution in which individuals of a population who vary in details of heritable traits survive and reproduce with differing success
  69. founder effect
    Change in allele frequencies that occurs after a small umber of individuals establish a new population
  70. bottle necking
    reduction in population size so severe that it reduces genetic diversity
  71. hardy weinburg
    1. no natural selection 2. no mutation 3. No genetic drift 4. random mating 5. no gene flow
  72. modern evolution
    a change in the frequent of certain genes in apopulation from generation to generation
  73. Speciation
    the formation of a new species
  74. Sympatic speciation
    the formation of a new specices while in constanst contact with the parental species. only plants do this
  75. Allopatric speciation
    when a new species is formed from a small population that is isolated from its parental populations most likele to occur in species that are widely siztributed and highly variable
  76. Stabilizing selection
    mode of natural selection in while intermediate phenotypes are favored over extremes
  77. Direction Selection
    mode of natural selection in which phenotypes at one end of the range of variation are favored
  78. Disruptive selection
    mode of natural selection that favors two forms in a rages of variations. Intermediate forms are selected against
  79. Homology
    Similar body structures that reflect shared ancesty among lineages
  80. anaology
    similar body structures that evolve separately in different lineages
  81. Vitalists
    believe that life has some components that cannot be understood.
  82. Mechanist
    believe that life is primarily chemical and that is can be explained in chemical terms
Card Set
biology final
biology final!