Final Exam Sect 4

  1. prevalence
    the number percentage of people in a population that have a particular disorder
  2. Incidence
    the number or percentage of newly diagnosed cases
  3. Prognosis
    • the potential outcome of a disorder
    • how severe, chronicity
  4. Comorbidity
    • or the co-occurrence of disorders
    • very high between these types of problems
  5. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR
    DSM-IV-TR ,2000
    • The handbook of mental disorders
    • There have been 6 versions of the DSM
  6. Note : immense variability of experiences
    personal characteristics
    personal capabilities
    • 1) between "expiramentation" and enduring behavior patterns
    • 2) between problems that are transitory in nature (acute) and those that persist over time (chronic)
  7. internalizing disorders
    externalizing disorders
    common manner for clinicians to divide broad categories
  8. Criteria to be considered abnormal
    (meet at least 2 or more)
    • violates social norms/expectations
    • causes the person significant distress or discomfort
    • significantly impairs the person's functioning
    • behavior is dangerous to the individuals or to others
  9. Depression
    most common psychological disturbance among adolescents
  10. Males
    more likely to suffer from depression in childhood
  11. Major Depressive Disorder
    • clinical form of the popular term "depression"
    • a mood disorder
  12. females after puberty
    • depression is much more common among...?
    • society differentially socializes how feelings should be expressed among genders
  13. diathesis-stress model
    • suggests that depression is the result of interaction between environmental factors and individual predispositions
    • nature/nurture debate
  14. Treatment of Depression
    treatment efficacy
    combination of medication and therapy most successful
  15. Risk Factors associated with suicide
    • males
    • gays lesbians bisexuals
    • single divorced separated widowed
    • teens and the elderly
    • people who are living alone or are socially isolated
    • whites native americans
    • physicians psychiatrists psychologists dentists police officers attorneys
    • the unemployed
    • concurrent diagnosis of major depression
    • chronic emotional or physical pain
    • Terminal Illness
    • Co-morbidity with other psychological disorders
    • History of prior attempts
    • Family history of suicide
    • Family history of physical or sexual or drug abuse
  16. Assessing the level of risk
    (of actual suicide danger)
    • plan?
    • means?
    • protective factors?
  17. discloses suicidal idealtion
    • take the person seriously
    • talk about it up front
  18. Suicidal Gesturing
    actions that are seen as a "cry for help" that are aimed at gaining attention to the pain the person is feeling
  19. Anxiety
    an internalizing problem
  20. Anxiety Disorders
    point of impairment
    • functioning in multiple areas is significantly affected
    • basically beyond a reasonable and normal level of worry, anxiety or fear
  21. Panic Disorder
    common phrase "anxiety is clinically diagnosed as
  22. Phobias
    irrational, persistent, consistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity.
  23. agoraphobia
    fear of being in an open or social setting in which you feel you have no impeded escape.
  24. social phobia
    fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation
  25. Acute Stress Disorder
    a disorder developed in a response to a traumatic event in which the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury
  26. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    • symtoms of ASD persist for more than a month
    • significant impairment to functioning
  27. Note:
    • treatment for anxiety disorders is very successful
    • cognitive/behavioral interventions
    • anxiolytic medications
  28. eating disorders
    sever disturbances in eating behavior
  29. Anorexia Nervosa
    a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight
  30. Anorexia
    more prevalent in industrialized countries
  31. anorexia
    rarely begins before puberty
  32. Bulimia Nervosa
    • binge-eating
    • inappropriate compensatory behaviors
    • vomiting laxatives diuretics fasting excessive exercise
  33. Schizophrenia
    a dissociative disorder in which a person suffers from bizarre thinking and behavior, disordered thinking, hallucinations and inability to distinguish between reality and "fantasy"
  34. Note:
    Small number of teens account for a relatively high proportion of serious criminal activity
  35. Status offenses
    • limited to minors
    • ex: truancy running away from home etc.
  36. Earlier an adolescent begins their criminal career the more likely they are to :
    • become a repeat offender
    • commit increasingly serious and violent crimes
    • continue committing crimes as an adult
  37. Antisocial tendencies
    histories of aggressive and violent behavior are identifiable as early as a 8
  38. Note:
    delinquents come from disorganized families with hostile, neglectful parents who often mistreat their children and failed to instill in them proper standards of behavior or psychological foundations of self-control
  39. life-course persistent antisocial behaviors
    delinquent adolescents continue their behavior to adulthood
  40. adolescent-limited antisocial behavior
    adolescents desist their antisocial tendencies
  41. gateway drugs
    • alcohol
    • marijuana
  42. abuse alcohol and drugs
    • from hostile family environments
    • have friends who abuse drugs
    • have problems in school
    • have problems in interpersonal relationships
  43. risk factors for substance abuse
    • psychological
    • interpersonal
    • contextual
  44. protective factors that decrease likelihood
    • positive mental health
    • high academic achievement
    • close family relations
    • involvement in religious and/or extracurricular activities
Card Set
Final Exam Sect 4