MUSC 136 Final Review

  1. Lied/Lieder
    German for “song”; most commonly associated with the solo art song of the 19th century, usually accompanied by piano
  2. song cycle
    group of songs, usually Lieder, that are unified musically or through their texts
  3. through-composed form
    song structure that is composed from beginning to end without repetitions of large sections
  4. concert overture
    single-movement concert piece for orchestra, typically from the Romantic period and often based on a literary program
  5. symphonic poem
    one-movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era. Also called a tone poem
  6. music drama
    Wagner’s term for his operas
  7. part songs
    secular vocal composition, unaccompanied, in three, four, or more parts
  8. polyharmony
    two or more streams of harmony played against each other, common in 20th century music
  9. serialism
    method of composition in which various musical elements (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tone color) may be ordered in a fixed series
  10. Sprechstimme
    a vocal style in which the melody is spoken at approximate pitches rather than sung on exact pitches, developed by Arnold Schoenberg
  11. ragtime
    Late-19th century piano style created by African Americans, characterized by highly syncopated melodies; also played in ensemble arrangements
  12. bebop
    complex jazz style developed in the 1940s
  13. third-stream
    Jazz style that synthesizes characteristics and techniques of classical music and jazz; term coined by Gunther Schuller
  14. aleatoric (“chance”)
    indeterminate music in which certain elements of performance (such as pitch, rhythm, or form) are left to choice or chance
  15. microtonal music
    music interval smaller than a semitone, prevalent in some non-Western musics and in some 20th century art music
  16. minimalism
    contemporary musical style featuring the repetition of short melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation.
  17. modified strophic form
    song structure that combines elements of strophic and through-composed forms; a variation of strophic form in which a section might have a new key, rhythm, or varied melodic pattern
  18. MIDI
    acronym for Musical Instrumental Digital Interface; technology that allows networking of computers with electronic musical instruments
  19. New Romanticism
    A contemporary style of music that employs the rich harmonic language and other elements of Romantic and post-Romantic composers
  20. program music
    Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the 19th century
  21. program symphony
    multi-movement programmatic orchestral work, typically from the 19th century
  22. pas de deux
    a dance for two that is an established feature of classical ballet
  23. polychords
    a single chord comprised of several chords, common in 20th century music
  24. polytonality
    the simultaneous use of two or more keys common in 20th century music
  25. Post-minimalism
    Contemporary style combining lush harmonies of New Romanticism with high-energy rhythms of minimalism; John Adams is a major exponent
  26. performance art
    multimedia art form involving visual as well as dramatic and musical elements
  27. Requiem
    Roman Catholic mass for the dead
  28. strophic form
    song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza of the poem
  29. tempo rubato
    “Borrowed time,” common in Romantic music, in which the performer hesitates here or hurries forward there, imparting flexibility to the written note values.
  30. tone row
    an arrangement of the 12 chromatic tones that serves as the basis of a 12-tone composition
  31. tone serialism
    extremely complex, totally controlled music in which the 12-tone principle is extended to elements of music other than pitch
  32. tone clusters
    highly dissonant combination of pitches sounded simultaneously
  33. West coast jazz
    jazz style developed in the 1950s featuring small groups of mixed timbres playing contrapuntal improvisations; similar to cool jazz
  34. atonality
    total abandonment of tonality (centering in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another without areas of relaxation
  35. blue note
    a slight drop of pitch on the 3rd, 5th, or 7th tone of the scale, common in blues and jazz
  36. blues
    African-American form of secular folk music, related to jazz, that is based on a simple, repetitive poetic-musical structure
  37. Klangfarbenmelodie
    20th century technique in which the notes of a melody are distributed among different instruments, giving a pointillistic texture
  38. impressionism
    a French movement developed by visual artists who favored vague, blurry images intended to capture an “impression” of the subject. Impressionism in music is characterized by scales, unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral tone color, and free rhythm
  39. incidental music
    music written to accompany dramatic works
  40. formalism
    tendency to elevate formal above expressive value in music
  41. cool jazz
    a sub-style of bebop, characterized by a restrained, unemotional performance with lush harmonies, moderate volume levels and tempos, and a new lyricism; often associated with Miles Davis
  42. grand opera
    style of Romantic opera developed in Paris, focusing on serious, historical plots with huge choruses, crowd scenes, elaborate dance episodes, ornate costumes, and spectacular scenery
  43. operetta
    a small-scale operatic work, generally light in tone, with spoken dialogue, song
  44. jazz
    a musical style created mainly by African Americans in the early 20th century that blended elements drawn from African musics with the popular and art traditions of the West
  45. bel canto
    “beautiful singing”; elegant Italian vocal style characterized by florid melodic lines delivered by voices of great agility, smoothness, and purity of tone
  46. Leitmotifs
    “leading motive,” or basic recurring theme, representing a person, object, or idea, commonly used in Wagner’s operas
  47. nationalism (pg 209)
    a decisive force within the Romantic movement, the pride of conquering nations and the struggle for freedom of suppressed ones gave rise to strong emotions that inspired the works of many creative artists; composers were able to expressed the hopes and dreams of millions of people in their music
  48. Post-Romantic (241)
    surfaced at the turn of the 20th century in Germany and Austria; extended the tonal traditions of the Romantics
  49. musical theatre
    American musical theatre has its roots in European operatta; musicals feature romantic plots while others are based on serious literary sources
  50. Richard Wagner
  51. Franz Schubert (149, 197)
    • Classical period (1750-1825)
    • - Classical and Romantic
    • - Erlking - a famous song (piano + voice); 1815
  52. Frederic Chopin (201)
    • Romantic miniatures
    • - “the poet of the piano”
  53. Robert Schumann (196)
    • Romantic miniature
    • - song cycle (lieder)
  54. Hector Berlioz (206)
    • Romantic program music
    • - orchestral music
  55. Bedrich Smetana (209)
    • Romantic program music
    • - Bohemian composer
    • - orchestral music
  56. Giuseppe Verdi (218)
    • Romantic opera
    • - known for his operas
  57. Johannes Brahms (225)
    • late Romantics
    • - choral music (A German Requiem)
  58. Claude Debussy (243)
    • Impressionist
    • - orchestral music (Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun”)
  59. Igor Stravinsky (253)
    • Post-Impressionism
    • - ballet (The Rite of Spring)
  60. Arnold Schoenberg (258)
    • German Expressionist
    • - chamber music (including the atonal Pierrot lunaire for voice and instruments)
  61. Aaron Copland (267)
    • American Nationalism
    • - ballet (Billy the Kid)
  62. John Cage (294)
    • Contemporary American
    • - piano works for prepared pianos
  63. John Adams (325)
    • Contemporary minimalist
    • - orchestral work
  64. George Crumb
    • American Contemporary classical
    • - vocal
  65. The Romantic Miniature
    art song and short piano pieces met the 19th century need for intimate personal expression
  66. Romantic Opera
    • developed distinct national styles in France, Germany and Italy
    • - France: grand opera (serious historical dramas with spectacular effects) and opera comique (comic opera with spoken dialogue)
    • - Germany: genre Singspiel (light comic drama with spoken dialogue) led to serious music drama (integrated all elements of opera)
    • - Italy: opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera); maarked the peak of the bel canto (beautiful singing) style
  67. Post-Romanticism and Impressionism
    • Impressionism - movement developed first through painters who tried to capture their “first impression” of a subject through varied treatments of light and color
    • - Impressionist composers made use of entire spectrum of pitches in chromatic scale
  68. Early 20th C. styles
    • explored simplicity and abstraction and the world of dreams and the inner soul
    • - Expressionism - explored new harmonic systems and extreme registers of instruments
    • - new concepts of harmony pressed music beyond the traditional systems of tonality and led to the 12-tone method devised by Arnold Schoenberg
  69. Schoenberg and the Second Viennese School
    • - German expressionist movement
    • - Schoenberg’s goal was to bring spoken word and music as close together as possible (Sprechstimme)
    • - Second Viennese School: Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, and Anton Webern
  70. 20th C. Nationalism
    20th century composers used more authentic folk and traditional elements in their nationalistic music than 19th century composers
  71. The New Music
    • - musical trends in the later 20th century mirrored movements in the other arts, including abstract expressionism, pop art, and postmodernism
    • - performance art explored by John Cage
    • - digital technology, MIDI and computers revolutionized the world of electronic music
    • - John Cage invented the prepared piano to simulate the sound of the Javanese gamelan orchestra, an ensemble of metallic percussion instruments
    • - improvisation - performer takes a role in the compositional process- minimalism and new romanticism are current trends
    • - minimalist music (JOHN ADAMS) is based on repetitive musical patterns than can sound hypnotic or sometimes frenetic
    • - New Romanticism - favors the rich harmonic language of the late Romantic era, coupled with a virtuosic style and new instrumental combinations
  72. Tempo
    (from slow to fast) grave, largo, adagio, andante, moderato, allegro, vivace, presto
  73. Dynamics
    (from soft to loud) pianissimo, piano, mezzo piano, mezzo forte, forte, fortissimo
  74. “In the lovely month of May,” from Dichterliebe (iMusic on the book site)
    • Composer: Schumann
    • Genre: song cycle, 19th century piano piece
    • Form: strophic form
    • Style Period: Romantic
  75. Erlkönig (Erlking) (pg 198)
    • Composer: Schubert
    • Genre:
    • Form: Through-composed Lied
    • Style Period: Romantic
  76. Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1 (Military) (pg 202)
    • Composer: Chopin
    • Genre:
    • Form: Ternary dance form (A-B-A’)
    • Style Period: Romantic
  77. Symphonie fantastique, 5th mvmt. (pg 207)
    • Composer: Berlioz
    • Genre: program symphony, 5 movements
    • Form: Romantic program music
    • Style Period: Romantic
  78. The Moldau, from My Country (pg 210)
    • Composer: Smetana
    • Genre: Symphonic poem; nationalism
    • Form: Romantic program music
    • Style Period: Romantic
  79. "Ride of the Valkyries," from Die Walküre (iMusic on the book site)
    • Composer: Wagner
    • Genre: opera
    • Form:
    • Style Period: Romantic
  80. Rigoletto, Act III, excerpts (pg 219)
    • Composer: Verdi
    • Genre: opera
    • Form:
    • Style Period: Romantic
  81. A German Requiem, 4th mvmt. (pg 226)
    • Composer: Brahms
    • Genre: Protestant Requiem, in 7 movements)
    • Form: Romantic choral music
    • Style Period: Romantic
  82. The Nutcracker, March (pg 229)
    • Composer: Tchaikovsky
    • Genre: ballet (from which an orchestral suite was made)
    • Form:
    • Style Period: Romantic
  83. Violin Sonata in a minor, 2nd mvmt. (pg 234)
    • Composer: Beach
    • Genre: violin sonata
    • Form:
    • Style Period: Second New England School (classical)
  84. Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun" (Prélude á "L’après-midi d’un faune") (pg 246)
    • Composer: Debussy
    • Genre: symphonic poem
    • Form: Free ternary (A-B-A’)
    • Style Period: Impressionism
  85. The Rite of Spring, Part I, excerpts (pg 255)
    • Composer: Stravinsky
    • Genre: ballet (often performed as a concert piece for orchestra)
    • Form:
    • Style Period: Impressionism
  86. "The Moonfleck" (Der Mondfleck), from Pierrot lunaire (pg 259)
    • Composer: Schoenberg
    • Genre: song cycle, for solo voice (mexxo-soprano) and 5 instrumentalists
    • Form:
    • Style Period: Expressionism
  87. Afro-American Symphony, 2nd mvmt (Sorrow)
    • Composer: Still
    • Genre: symphony
    • Form: three movements (exposition, development, recapitulation)
    • Style Period: Nationalism
  88. Billy the Kid, Scene 1, Street in a Frontier Town (pg 267)
    • Composer: Copland
    • Genre: orchestral suite from ballet
    • Form:
    • Style Period: nationalism
  89. Maple Leaf Rag (pg 272)
    • Composer: Joplin
    • Genre: piano rag
    • Form: sectional dance form; 4 sections or strains (Each of 16 measures)
    • Style Period: ragtime
  90. Sonata V, from Sonatas and Interludes (pg 295)
    • Composer: Cage
    • Genre: 16 sonatas
    • Form: binary (A-A-B-B)
    • Style Period: prepared piano - 1946 (Improvisation; Contemporary)
  91. China Dreams: Prelude (pg 297)
    • Composer: Sheng
    • Genre: Symphonic suite
    • Form: 3-part structure
    • Style Period: Contemporary
  92. West Side Story, excerpts (pg 303)
    • Composer: Bernstein
    • Genre: musical theatre
    • Form:
    • Style Period: late 20th century musical theatre
  93. Tromba Iontana (Distant Trumpet) (pg 325)
    • Composer: Adams
    • Genre: opera
    • Form: orchestra with two solo trumpets
    • Style Period: late 20th century (1986); minimalist
  94. Beloved, Thou Hast Brought Me Many Flowers, No. 6, "Go from me" (pg 327)
    • Composer: Larsen
    • Genre: song cycle (6 songs)
    • Form: mezzo-soprano with cello and piano
    • Style Period: late 20th century (1994)
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MUSC 136 Final Review