Psych Final

  1. Personality
    pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, behaviors that characterize how an individual adapts to the world
  2. Which perspective endorses unconscious motion?
    psychodynamic perspective
  3. For Freud, what is the primary motivating force behind behvior?
    sexual drive
  4. Id
    • consists of unconscious drives
    • reservoir of sexual energy
    • works according to pleasure principle
  5. Ego
    • deals with demands of reality
    • abides by reality principle
  6. Superego
    • evaluate morality of behavior
    • reflected in "conscience"
  7. Defense mechanism
    tactics ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
  8. Psychosexual stages (order)
    oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency period, genital stage
  9. Oral Stage (first 18 months)
    pleasure centers around mouth (chewing, sucking, biting reduce tension)`
  10. Anal Stage (18 to 36 months)
    pleasure centers around anus and urethra and their functions (toilet training)
  11. Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years)
    Pleasure focuses on genitals (discovery that self-stimulation in enjoyable)
  12. Latency Period ( 6 years to puberty)
    • setting aside all interest in sexuality
    • no real development (according to Freud)
  13. Genital Stage (puberty to adulthood)
    • sexual reawakening
    • source of sexual pleasure outside family
  14. How does fixation at a particular psychosexual stage influence adult behavior?
    That stage colors a person's personality
  15. What does Jung mean by collective unconscious?
    • impersonal, deepest layer of unconscious mind
    • shared by all human beings because of ancestral past
  16. What does Jung mean by archetypes?
    emotionally-laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people
  17. What archetypes refer to masculinity and femininity?
    • anima (passive feminine side)
    • animus (assertive masculine side)
  18. According to Adler, compensation is...
    the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities
  19. According to Adler, inferiority is...
    experienced as infants and young children when we interact with bigger, more poweful people
  20. According to Rogers what is unconditional positive regard?
    being accepted, valued and treated positively
  21. According to Rogers, how is unconditional positive regard used to avoid the development of conditions of worth?
    even when a person's behavior is inappropriate, obnoxious, or unacceptable, he or she still needs respect, comfort, and love of others
  22. What is the method proposed by Rogers to develop a more positive self-concept?
    the individual must experience a relationship that includes three essential qualities; unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness
  23. How do trait theories of personality characterize personality?
    consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses
  24. What are the big 5 personality traits?
    • Openness to Experience
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism (Emotional Instability)
  25. Openness
    • imaginative or practical
    • interested in variety or routine
    • independent or conforming
  26. Conscientiousness
    • Organized or disorganized
    • Careful or careless
    • Disciplined or impulsive
  27. Extraversion
    • Sociable or retiring
    • Fun-loving or somber
    • Affectionate or reserved
  28. Agreeableness
    • Softhearted or ruthless
    • Trusting or suspicious
    • Helpful or uncooperative
  29. Neuroticism
    • Calm or anxious
    • Secure or insecure
    • Self-satisfied or self-pitying
  30. Traits
    enduring characteristics
  31. States
    briefer experiences, such as moods
  32. Which perspective on personality places emphasis on conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals?
    Social cognitive
  33. Reciprocal determinism
    the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality
  34. Self-efficacy
    the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task
  35. Why, according to your text, did Mischel almost “derail the scientific study of personality”?
    no evidence of cross-situational consistency
  36. Which neurotransmitter is associated with extraversion?
  37. Results of behavioral genetics twin studies suggest that heritability estimates for the big five personality factors are about percent?
    About 50%
  38. Self-Report Measure
    directly asks people whether different items describe their personality traits
  39. Social Desirability
    when movitvated by social desirability, individuals say what they think the researcher wants to hear or what they think will make them look better
  40. Empircally Keyed Test
    a type of self-report test that presents many questionnaire items to two groups that are known to be different in some central way
  41. Which type of self-report is developed as an empirically keyed test?
    MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
  42. Face Validity
    quality of seeming, on the surface, to fit a particular trait in question
  43. Projective Test
    personality assessment test that represents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe ot or tell a sstory about it---to project their own meaning onto the stimulus
  44. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • ten inkblots, when described, scored for indicating underlying psychological charcateristics
    • reliability and validity criticized
  45. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • designed to elicit stories that reveal personality
    • higher reliability and validity
  46. If your clinician emphasizes the role of unconscious processes and unresolved childhood conflicts, with which psychological approach does he/she align with?
  47. Independent Variable
    the variable the experimenter changes to see what its effects are
  48. Dependent variable
    the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
  49. What structures make up the central nervous system?
    brain and spinal cord
  50. What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system?
    arouses the body to mobilize it for action
  51. What theory of learning focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping?
  52. Classical conditioning
    learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response
  53. Operant Conditioning
    the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurence
  54. Three processes of memory:
    encoding, storage and retrieval
  55. Activities associated with encoding information:
    • attention
    • level of processing
    • elaboration
    • imagery
  56. What is studied in the field of cognitive psychology?
    Approaches seeking to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed
  57. What is a teratogen?
    any agent that causes a birth defect (e.g. chemical substances ingested by the mother, certain illnesses (nicotine, rubella))
Card Set
Psych Final
psychology final exam