Discussion Papers for final exam.txt

  1. Gupta, 2004
    • outlines of bacterial evolution
    • looked at Eubacteria (not archaeobac)
    • Saw conserved INDELS: showed Gram + are most ancient (monoderm) - ancestral, and Gram - are more recent (diderm)
    • Deinococci are intermediates
    • Diagram shows:
    • 1. thick cell membrane of 1 plasma membrane & pep-glycan cell wall
    • 2. Thin cell wall w/2 plasma membranes & pep-glycan cell wall
    • 3. Thick cell wall w/2 plasma membranes
  2. Lonhiemne et al. 2010
    • Endocytosis-like protein
    • Argued opposite of Embly & Martin
    • Said Endo-membranes (internal membranes) evolved 1st, BEFORE Endosymbiosis of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
    • ie: nuclear membrane evolved prior to mitochondria
  3. Embly, ™, Martin W. 2006
    • Eukaryotic evolution changes & challenges
    • Argued opposite of Lonheimne
    • Said Proto-mitochondrian may have evolved 1st, BEFORE nuclear membranes
    • This done by endosymbiosis
    • Host: Archaeobacteriu
    • Endosymbiont that evolved into pro-mitochondrian: Eubacterium
  4. Bell, Philip 2004.
    • Viral Eukaryogenesis Theory
    • 1st to evolve is Eukaryotic nucleus w/linear chrom…may have evolved from dsDNA virus
    • 3rd genome important: dsDNA virus, which infected host cell w/out lysing it immediately
    • Host cell: archaeobacterial cell (provides the genes needed for REP, TRANSCRIPTION & TRANSLATION)
    • Endosymbiont: Provides METABOLISM for 1. glycolysis, 2. Krebs, 3. oxidative phosphorylation
    • Evolved from eubac symbiont, which becomes mitochondriont
    • BEST job explaining features of euk vs. pro
  5. Alvarez & Asaro 1990
    • Extraterrestrial Impact
    • Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction @ 65MYA caused by METEOR impact
    • Use data from newly discovered crater: Chicxulub crater @ Yucatan Peninsula of Mexio
  6. Courtillot 1990.
    • Volcanic eruption
    • K/T extinction @ 65MYA may have been caused by Deccan Traps volcanic activity in India
  7. Sereno, P 1999.
    • Evolution of Dinosaurs
    • Dinosaurs experienced # of ADAPTIVE Radiations & REGIONAL extinctions B4 K/T extinction…but this killed off the last of the non-avian dinosaurs
    • Regional extinction ie: Triassic/Jurassic
  8. Alvarez & Muller, 1984.
    • Evidence from crater ages form periodic impacts on Earth
    • 1st to postulate periodicity of meteorite impacts
    • Statistical evidence for a 28MY periodicity to meteor impacts during past 250MY!
  9. Raup & Sepkoski, 1986.
    • Periodic extinction of families & genera
    • Est. timeline of 26 MY periodicity of major MARINE extinctions over past 250MY!
  10. Benton 1995.
    • Diversification and extinction in the history of life
    • NO EVIDENCE of Periodicity to Mass extinctions in Marine or Terrestrial habitats over the past 600MY!
  11. Raup 1991.
    • Extinctions: bad genes or bad luck?
    • Argued all extinctions may be due, at least in part, to meteorite impacts.
    • Looked at Meteors in the FOSSIL record
  12. Rohde & Muller 2005.
    • Cycles in Fossil Diversity
    • Statistical significant support for hypothesis that MARINE EXTINCTIONS follow a 62MY CYCLE!
    • This occurs during Paleozoic, Mesozoic & Cenozoic Eras
    • May be attributed to galactic movements of SOLAR system
  13. Ward P. 2006
    • Impacts from the Deep
    • All major extinctions in the past may share common feature: global warming (although may be due to volcanic or meteor)
    • Starts w/INCREASE in CO2 levels, which increase temps in atmosphere & oceans
    • Leads to INCREASE in CH4 building from ocean floor (worse than CO2 for ozone layer)
    • Leads to INCREASE in Hydrogen SULFIDE building from ocean floor (animals cannot tolerate this)
    • leads to ANOXIA
    • This Hydrogen SULFIDE increase caused the Permian/Triassic boundary (Paleozoic end and start of Mesozoic) around 251MYA…then there was a SLOW recovery period that followed
    • Dinosaurs were best adapted to survive b/c have BEST respitory tracts
  14. Gould & Lewontin, 1979.
    • Spandrels of San Marco
    • Non-selective forces: May be more important when explaining what appear to be Adaptation vs. selective forces
  15. Linnen et al. 2009.
    • On origin & spread of an adaptive allele in deer mice
    • Agouti Mutation: 8000yrs ago occurred in deer mice living in Sand Hills of Nebraska. Have been preserved by Natural selection (mutation changes color from brown-->tan)
  16. Darwin, 1859
    • On Origin of species - Sterility of Hybrids
    • F1 Hybrid Sterility (intrinsic post-zygotic mechanism): NOT be of any SELECTIVE advantage of any of the organisms that possess it
  17. Coyne & Orr. 2004
    • Speciation
    • Post-Zygotic Isolation
    • F1 hybrid sterility & F1 hybrid inviability Could EVOLVE by SELECTIVE forces
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Discussion Papers for final exam.txt
evol bio