1. Three Categories of Animal Nutrition:
    • Herbivores - Eat mainly autotrophs.
    • Carnivores - Eat other animals.
    • Omnivores - Consume animals and plants or algal.
  2. Stages of Food Processing:
    • Ingestion > Digestion
    • In chemical digestion, enzymatic hydrolysis splits bonds in molecules.
    • Absorption is uptake of nutrients.
    • Elimination is the passage of undigested material out.
  3. Types of Ingestion:
    • Suspension
    • Substrate
    • Fluid
    • Bulk
  4. Suspension Feeders:
    • Many aquatic animals.
    • Sift through particles in water.
    • ex. Sponge
  5. Substrate Feeders:
    • Animals that live in or on their food source.
    • ex. Tapeworm
  6. Fluid Feeders:
    • Suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host.
    • ex. Leeches
  7. Bulk Feeders:
    • Eat relatively large pieces of food.
    • ex. Snakes
  8. Digestive Compartments:
    • Most animals process food in specialized compartments.
    • Reduces risk of digesting its own cells and tissues.
  9. Intracellular Digestion:
    Food particles engulfed by endocytosis and digested in vacuoles.
  10. Lysosomes:
    Contains hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion.
  11. Extracellular Digestion:
    • Breakdown of food particles outside of cells.
    • Occurs in compartments continuous with outside of body.
    • Simple body plans have gastrovascular cavity that functions in digestion and Complex animals have a digestive tube with a mouth and anus. (Digestive Tube/Alimentary Canal)
  12. Alimentary Canal Regions:
    • Foregut
    • Midgut
    • Hindgut
  13. Foregut:
    • Where food is physically broken up.
    • Mouth cavity:
    • Food may swallowed whole or fragmented/liquified.
  14. Stomach:
    • Storage sac for food.
    • Physically (and enzymatically) breaks down food.
    • Some have crops that hold food and muscular gizzards that grind food.
  15. Midgut:
    • A long, thin midgut is referred to as small intestine.
    • The primary site of digestion and absorption.
    • Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by intestinal cells and glands.
    • Macromolecules broken down to monomers and absorbed into blood.
    • Maximizing surface area increases ability to absorb.
  16. Hindgut:
    • Is the final segment.
    • Also called Large Intestine.
  17. Function of Large Intestine:
    • Recover water and ions.
    • Store feces.
  18. Cloaca:
    Urinary and digestive wastes expelled through the same opening.
  19. Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems:
    • Digestive systems are variations on a common plan.
    • There are adaptations related to diet.
  20. Dental Adaptations:
    • Dentition is a structural variation reflecting diet.
    • Mammals have varying dentition adapted to their diet.
  21. Differences in dentition patterns:
    • Carnivores - Tearing meat (large canines)
    • Herbivores - Chewing tough plants (no or small canines, many molars)
    • Omnivores - Balanced set of teeth for meat and plants.
    • Snakes - Modified fangs to inject venom with unhingeable jaws.
  22. Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations:
    • Herbivores have longer alimentary canals reflecting longer digestion times.
    • Carnivores eat larger food pieces and store for a longer time due to fewer resources.
  23. Mutualistic Adaptations:
    • Herbivores have fermentation chambers.
    • Symbiotic microorganisms digest cellulose.
    • Enzymes lacked in animal but present in microorganism.
  24. Ruminants:
    • Herbivore with Elaborate adaptation.
    • Multiple chambers to digest to a certain point.
  25. Animal Diet:
    • Provides chemical energy.
    • Need a source of organic carbon and nitrogen.
    • Essential nutrients must be obtained from diet.
  26. Name the four classes of essential nutrients.
    • Essential Amino Acids
    • Essential Fatty Acids
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  27. Amino Acids:
    • Require 20 amino acids.
    • Can synthesize about half from diet.
    • Remaining, essential amino acids, in preassembled form.
    • Protein insufficient diet causes malnutrition called protein deficiency.
    • Meat, eggs, and cheese are "complete" proteins.
    • Most plant proteins are incomplete.
    • Plant proteins need specific plant combinations.
    • Adaptations help periods when demanding lots of protein.
  28. Essential Fatty Acids:
    • Unsaturated fatty acids and obtained by diet.
    • Animals can synthesize most fatty acids.
    • Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare.
  29. Vitamins:
    • Organic molecules required in small amounts.
    • 13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified.
    • Vitamins are either grouped fat-soluble and water-soluble.
  30. Minerals:
    • Simple inorganic nutrients, required in small amounts.
    • Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Iron
  31. Dietary Deficiencies:
    Undernourishment is a diet that supplies less energy than required.
  32. An Undernourished Individual Will:
    • Use up stored fat and carbohydrates.
    • Break down its own proteins.
    • Lose muscle mass.
    • Suffer protein deficiency of the brain.
    • Die or suffer irreversible damage.
  33. Malnourishment:
    • Long-term absence from diet of essential nutrients.
    • Cause deformities, disease, and death.
    • Corrected by changes to diet.
  34. Energy Balance:
    • Balances energy from metabolism, activity, and storage.
    • ATP generation is based on oxidation of energy-rich molecules:
    • Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats.
    • Stores excess calories as glycogen in liver and muscles.
    • Secondarily stored as adipose, or fat, cells.
    • Fewer calories than expended leads to usage from storage and oxidized.
  35. Effect of Obesity:
    • Diabetes (type 2)
    • Cancer (colon, breasts)
    • Heart Attacks
    • Strokes
  36. Homeostatic Mechanisms:
    • Feedback circuits controls storage and metabolism of fat long-term.
    • Hormones regulate long-term and short-term affect a "satiety center".
    • Complexity of weight control is evident from studies leptin. (hormone)
    • Mice with defect in leptin gene become very obese.
  37. Problem of Maintaining Weight:
    • From our past, when fat hoarding meant survival.
    • A species of birds called petrels become obese as chicks.
Card Set
BIOL 1215-16 Animal Nutrition