Church History I Notes

  1. Gregory the Great
    • Pope from 3 September 590 until death
    • known as “the Father of Christian Worship” because of his exceptional efforts in revising Roman worship
    • First Pope from a monastic background
  2. Clovis
    • first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler
    • first Catholic King to rule over Gaul (France)
    • not only a Frankish king, he was also a Roman official
  3. Charles Martel
    (Charles the Hammer)
    • Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum (737–43)
    • 739 he was offered the title of Consul by the Pope, but he refused
    • founding figure of the Middle Ages
    • father of Pepin the Short and grandfather of Charlemagne
  4. Pepin III (the Short)
    • first King of the Franks (752–68) of the Carolingian dynasty
    • Pepin obtained the permission of Pope Zachary to depose the last of the Merovingian kings, Childeric III, and assume the throne (752)
    • He conquered formerly church owned land, returned it to Vatican, allowing the beginning of Papal States
  5. Charlemagne
    (Charles the Great)
    • King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death in 814
    • conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800
    • His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance
  6. Dominic
    • Founder of Dominicans (Order of Teachers)
    • Well educated
  7. Jan Hus
    • Czech priest at Charles University in Prague
    • First Church reformer
    • burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church
    • Source of inspiration for Luther and Calvine (100yrs later)
  8. Valdes
    • anonymous author of Diálogo de Mercurio y Carón, written and published about 152
    • Diálogo attacked the corruptions of the Roman Church; hence Valdés, in fear of the Spanish Inquisition, left Spain for Naples in 1530
  9. Innocent III
    • notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions
    • called for crusades against militant heretics like the Cathars, as well as Muslims
    • calling upon Christian forces to begin The Fourth Crusade
  10. Boniface VIII
    • best remembered for his feuds with Dante, who placed him in the Eighth circle of Hell in his Divina Commedia
    • Boniface proclaimed 1300 a jubilee year, the first in of many such jubilees take place in Rome
  11. Otto I
    • 2 February 962, Otto was crowned Emperor of what later became the Holy Roman Empire
    • Otto sought to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities, chiefly bishops and abbots
    • Appointed bishops against the will of the Pope
  12. Henry IV
  13. Otto III
    elected King in 983 on the death of his father Otto II and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 996Otto made Rome the administrative center of his Empire and revived elaborate Roman customs and Byzantine court ceremonies
  14. Hildebrand (Gregory VII)
    • best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor affirming the primacy of the papal authority and the new canon law governing the election of the pope by the College of Cardinals
    • He twice excommunicated Henry IV, who in the end appointed the Antipope Clement III to oppose him in the political power struggles between Church and Empire
  15. Leo IX
    • Pope from 12 February 1049 to his death
    • earnest and reforming ecclesiastic by the zeal he showed in spreading the rule of the order of Cluny
    • re-required celebacy of clergy
  16. Saladin
    • first Sultan of Egypt and Syria
    • led Muslim and Arab opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant
  17. Baldwin I
    • prominent leader of the Fourth Crusade
    • lost his final battle to Kaloyan, the emperor of Bulgaria, and spent his last days as his prisoner
  18. Fredrick Barbarossa
    • 3rd Crusade
    • 1st thru 4th Italian Campaigns
  19. Richard the Lionhearted
    • central Christian commander during the Third Crusade
    • effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin, but was unable to reconquer Jerusalem
  20. Anselm
    • Benedictine Theologian
    • became Archbishop of Canterbury under William II of England, and was exiled from England from 1097 to 1100, and again from 1105 to 1107 under Henry I of England
  21. Peter Abelard
    • French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician
    • Realist (our reality is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes)
    • Known affair with Heloise
  22. Heloise
    • French nun, writer, scholar, and abbess, best known for her love affair and correspondence with Peter Abélard
    • scholar of Latin, Greek and Hebrew
  23. Catherine of Sienna
    • a tertiary of the Dominican Order, and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian
    • worked to bring the papacy of Gregory XI back to Rome from its displacement in France
    • establish peace among the Italian city-states
    • She was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in 1970
  24. Petrarch
    • "Father of Humanism"
    • Was the model eventually used for modern Italian
    • Contemporary of Dante, but highly dissimilar
  25. Albert the Great
    • German Dominican friar and a bishop, who achieved fame for his comprehensive knowledge of and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion
    • Catholic Church honours him as a Doctor of the Church, one of only 34 persons with that honor
  26. Mirandola
    • defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy and magic against all comers, for which he wrote the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man , which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance"
    • defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy and magic against all comers, for which he wrote the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man , which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance"defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy and magic against all comers, for which he wrote the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man , which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance"
  27. Lorenzo Valla
    • by questioning the utility of monastic life, he aroused the anger of some of the faithful
    • he ridiculed the Latin of the Vulgate and accused St Augustine of heresy
  28. Great Thaw
  29. Albigensianism/Cathars
    Christian religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries
  30. Cluny
    • Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France
    • Abbey was notable for its stricter adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict and the place where the Benedictine Order was formed, whereby Cluny became acknowledged as the leader of western monasticism
  31. Cistercians
    • sometimes also called the Bernardines or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the habit, over which a black scapularis worn
    • emphasis of Cistercian life is on manual labour and self-sufficiency
    • many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
  32. Concilliar movement
    final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as a corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope
  33. Ottonian Reforms
  34. Augustinians
    lead a semi-monastic life, while remaining committed to pastoral care, appropriate to their primary vocation as priests
  35. Great Schism
    separated the Christians in the West from the Greek (Orthodox) Christians in the East
  36. The Babylonian Captivity
    • Avignon Papacy
    • Time when the Papacy was not in Rome
    • Ended with Pope Gregory XI returning to Rome
  37. The Schism between popes
    Avignon and Roman/Constantinople Pope schism
Card Set
Church History I Notes
Church, History