Review 1

  1. McGregor's Theory X
    • A type of managament that seems to focus on results
    • -Most People dislike work and want to avoid it.

    -People require close direction

    -People want to avoid responsibility and have little ambition
  2. McGregor's Theory Y
    • Seems to be a modern way of managment- people like to work.
    • -Work is a natural activity
    • -People can be self directed if they are committed to the objective
    • -Most employees accept and seek responsibility
    • -Employees have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity.
  3. FIve source of Organizational Behavior Research Insights
    • Laboratory study-
    • Manipulation and measurement of variables in contrived situation.

    • Field study-
    • Exaination of varialbes in real-life settings

    • Sample survey-
    • Questionnaire responses from a sample of people

    • Case Studies
    • In-depth analysis of single individual, group, or organization.

    • Meta-analysis
    • Pools the results of many studies through statistical procedure.
  4. The Cognitive Miser
    -Although the human brain is an amazing piece of equipment, it is finite in its processing capacity.

    -Since the world is both infinetly large and infinitely complex, our brain is forced to take shortcuts and ignore some input in favor of other input.

    -This leads to errors.
  5. Communication and it's meaning.
    Definition: The transference and the understanding of meaning.

    • Communication Functions-
    • 1. Provide information needed to make decisions.
    • 2. Control behavior.
    • 3.Foster motivation for what is to be done.
    • 4. Provide a release for emotional expression.
  6. Communication Process Model
    • Image Upload 1
    • The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. Useful for diagnosing problems.
  7. Information Richness of Communication Channels
    Image Upload 2
  8. Personal and Informational Barriers
    • Selective Perception (often resulting in decoding failures).
    • People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, focus, or attitudes.

    • Information Overload (a common form of noise).
    • A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity.

    • Mindlessness (often resulting in decoding errors).
    • Automaticity of behaviours and a lack of active conscious involvement.
  9. Status-Driven Barriers(often resulting in encoding failures).
    • Filtering
    • A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.
  10. Gender Barriers.
    • Men Talk to
    • 1.Emphasize status, power, and independence.
    • 2.Complain that women have too high a need to communicate.
    • 3.Offer solutions.
    • 4.To boast about their accomplishments.
  11. Gender Barriers- Women
    • 1-Establish connection and intimacy.
    • 2-Criticize men for not listening.
    • 3-Speak of problems to promote closeness.
    • 4-Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.
  12. Nonverbal Communication
    • 1. Kinesics
    • - Movement of the head, arms, hands, legs, feet, postural shifts, some gestures, eye movement, and facial expressions.
  13. Kinesics- the different types
    • Emblems- nonverbal acts that have direct verbal translation and can substitute for words, the meaning of which is well understood by a particular group, class or culture e.g., waving a hand in gretting (learned language skills, culture specific)
    • Illustrators- Movements that are tied directly to speech and serve to visualize what is verbalised, e.g., pointing to where you want someone to look.
    • Affect displays- facial expressions of emotions. The basic emotions of happiness, anger, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness and interest are similar across a wide variety of cultures.
  14. Non verbal Communicatino- Paralanguage
    content free vocalizations and patterns associated with speeck- pitch, volume, frequency, stuttering, filled pauses e.g., 'ah', silent pauses, interruptions, speech rate, number of words spoken.
  15. Nonverbal Communication- Physical contact, Proxemics, Objects or adornments
    • 1.Physical contact- touching
    • 2.Proxemics- interpersonal and psychological space management.
    • 3. Objects or adornments- perfume, clothes, jewellery, wigs
  16. Self-Esteem one's overall self-evaluation
    a. I fell I am a person of worth, the equal of other people

    b. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
  17. Locus of control and the self-serving
    External Locus of Control- One's life outcomes attributes to environmental factors such as luck or fate.

    Internal Locus of Control- belief that one controls events and consequences in one's life.
  18. Self Efficacy
    A person's belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a task.

    A lack of efficacy can lead people to make "sucker's choices" in communication and can force people towar avoiding communication from a sense of hopelessness.`
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Review 1
Review one for Business administration