1. If you are AB+ who can you donate blood to?
    who can you receive blood from?
    • Donate to ONLY AB+
    • Receive from any one (universal recipient)
  2. If you are O- who can you donate blood to?
    who can you receive blood from?
    • Donate to anyone (universal donor)
    • Receive from O- & O+ only
  3. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn is caused by a ____ mother & ____ father.
    Rh- mother & Rh+ father
  4. When the the Rh+ RBC's of the first born child enter the mother's circulation , she becomes _____.
  5. When an Rh- mother has her second child, her plasma carries _____ which may destroy the RH+ RBC's of the fetus.
    Rh antibodies
  6. If you are B+ who can you donate blood to?
    who can you receive blood from?
    • Donate to B+ & AB+
    • Receive from B+, B-, O+, O-
  7. If you are A+ who can you donate blood to?
    who can you receive blood from?
    • Donate to A+, AB+
    • Recieve from A+, A-, O+ , O-
  8. In the Cardiac Cylcle each impulse produces _____.
    One Cycle
  9. What is Systole in the Cardiac Cycle?
    Contraction phase of the heart muscle
  10. What is Diastole in the Cardiac Cycle?
    Relaxation of the heart muscle
  11. What happend in Ventricle Systole?
    • Ventricles contract
    • AV valves close (lub S1 )
    • SL valves open & 50-60 % of the blood is ejected
  12. What happend in Atrial & Ventricular diastole?
    • Ventricles relax
    • SL valves close (dupp S2 )
  13. When blood hits the Semilunar valves what sound can be heard?
    Dupp S2
  14. When blood hits the AV valves what sound can be heard?
    Lubb S1
  15. _____ is the force that pushes blood through the blood vessels.
    Blood Pressure
  16. Blood flows from a ____ to a ___ gradient.
    Higher to Lower
  17. Blood pressure is highest where?
  18. BP is lowest where ?
    Vena Cavae
  19. What is the Arterial Pressure Gradient?
    • averages 60mmHg
    • Pressure difference between the Aorta and the Arteriole
    • 95 - 35
  20. What is the Capillary Pressure Gradient?
    • averages 20 mmHg
    • Pressure difference between the Arteriole side to Venule side of capillary bed
    • 35 - 15
  21. What is the Venous Pressure Gradient?
    • averages 15 mmHg
    • Pressure difference between the Venules to the Vena Cavae
    • 15- 0
  22. Systolic Pressure is measured when _____ is contracting .
    The left ventricle
  23. Diastolic Pressure is measured when the left ventricle is _____.
  24. Where would you find the systolic number of a BP?
    on the top
  25. PP = SP - DP represents ______ and is what?
    • Difference between Systolic / Diastolic pressure
    • Pulse Pressure
  26. What is MAP?
    • Mean Arterial Pressure
    • Single measurement of arteriole blood pressure
    • MAP = diastolic pressure + (pulse pressure/3)
  27. ___ is used to measure Blood Pressure.
  28. The low number on a BP reading is the ___ pressure.
  29. What a typical BP reading?
  30. A BP reading of 140/190 or above is considered ____.
  31. The Anterior Pituutary produces the following hormones:
    • GH
    • ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • PRL (prolactin)
    • FSH& LH (gonadotropins)
  32. The Thyroid gland produces what hormones?
    • Thyroxine
    • Triiodothyronine
    • (T4 & T3)
    • CT (Calcitonin)
  33. The Parathyroid gland produces _______.
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  34. ______ antigen in lymph fluid that enters lymph tissue and binds to B-lymphocytes.
  35. B-lymphocytes can be found in what?
    organs & tissues
  36. B-lymphocytes become activated and then divide into what?
    Plasma & Memory cells
  37. Antibodies cause the destruction of what?
  38. B-lymohocytes become plasma cells that secrete what?
    various types of antibodies
  39. What is Agglutination and Preceipitation by anitbodies?
    what type of mediation is this?
    • removing antigen bearing cells from solution in blood or body fluids.
    • ANTIBODY mediated
  40. Neutralization is ______ mediated immunity.
  41. Agglutination & Precipitation is ______ mediated immunity.
  42. Activation of complex protiend is ______ mediated immunity.
  43. Phagocytosis is ______ mediated immunity.
  44. Opsonization is ______ mediated immunity.
  45. What is Opsonization ?
    coating of antigen by antibodies to increase phagocytosis attachment to antibody
  46. Stimulation of Inflammation is ______ mediated immunity.
  47. What is stimulation of Inflammation?
    by activation of mast cells by basophils
  48. Prevention of Antigens Adhesion is ______ mediated immunity.
  49. Innate Immuntiy is what?
    genetically specified and determined @ birth
  50. Acquired immunity is what?
    produced by exposed to antigens or by the transfer of anitbodies
  51. Passive acquired immunity comes from what?
    • by induced / given medically (usually AIDS)
    • or
    • by natural exposed from breast feeding or in uterus
  52. Is passive immunity Innate or Acquired?
  53. B-lymhocytes respond to _____ antigens such as, bacteria.
  54. T-lymohocytes respond to ____ antigens, given an example
    Intracellualr = tumor cells, virial infection
  55. Poisterior Pituitary gland produces what hormones?
    • Oxcytocin (OT)
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
  56. Adrenal Cortex produces what hormones?
    • Glucocorticoids
    • (hydrocortisone, cortisol, corticosterone)
    • Mineralocortcoids
    • (aldosterone)
  57. The liver secretes what?
    • Thrombopoitin (platelets)
    • Erythropoitin (RBC)
  58. The heart secretes ______.
    • Peptide
    • Natriuretic
  59. Adipsoe Tissue secretes what?
  60. What is Tidal Volume?
    Vt = Volume of air in one breath
  61. What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume?
    IRV = Volume of air inspired in addition to the Tidal Volume (Vt)
  62. What is Expiratory Reserve Volume?
    ERV = VOlume of air expired in addition to Vt
  63. What is Residual Volume?
    RV = Volume of air that cannot be expired even with maximum force
  64. Give the formula for Inspiratoy Capacity.
    • IC = Vt + IRV
    • Tidal volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume
  65. Give the formula for Functional Residual Capacity.
    • FRC = ERV + RV
    • Expiratory Reserve Volume + Reserve Volume
    • This can only be calculated
  66. Give the formula for Vital Capacity.
    VC = Vt + IRV = ERV
  67. Give the formula for Total Lung Capacity.
    TLC = Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
  68. FEV1 stands for what?
    Forced Expiratory Volume in one second
  69. What should the FEV1 measure in a heathly adult?
    75 % or higher
  70. What would a FEV1 lower than 75% indicate?
    • airway obstruction
    • lung diseases
    • weakness of respiratory muscles
  71. Describe the Pancreas:
    5 inch long extension from the Duodenum to the SpleenConsists of 4 parts (head, neck , bady, & tail)
  72. What cells are found in the Pancreas?
    95-98% are EXocrine producing digestive enzymesSome are ENDOcrine cells in pancreatic islets which produce hormones
  73. What are Acinar cells & where they found?
    EXocrine cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the ducts of the Pancreas
  74. What are Ductal cells & where they found?
    secrete a BICARBONATE Solution that neutralizes the acidic Chyme from the stomach and PROTECTS the mucosa of the Duodenum as the food moves from the stomach into the duodenum
  75. Protiens can only be absorbed as a _______ amino acid.
  76. Pancreatic Juice is made of what?
    Bicarbonate Solution & Digestive Enzymes
  77. Protiens are digested by what Pancreatic Enzyme & Where are they activated?
    Proteolyic Enzymes = activated in the Duodenum
  78. The Proteytic Enzymes digest protiens & polypeptides into what?
    • Tripeptides
    • Dipeptides
    • Single Amino Acids
  79. Starch is digested by what Panreactic Enzyme?
    • Pancreatic Amylase
    • it digested starch into disaccharides
    • ** this is the sams as in the mouth **
  80. Fats are made of what?
  81. What pancreatic enzyme digests fats?
    Paancreatic Lipase Enzyme
  82. Digestion of each triglyceride yields what?
    One Monoglyceride molecule & Two fatty acid molecules
  83. What hormone is released when the body is dehydrated?and from where?
    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from the POSTerior pituitary
  84. ADH does what to increase water reabsorbtion?
    makes the cells of the DCT & CD more permeable to water, whoch allows more water to be reabsorbed (distal convoluted tubules & collecting ducts)
  85. Describe Urine produced during a time of Dehydration:
    Small amount that would be dark yellow
  86. Minimum Urine volume that must be excreted by the kidneys to get rid of metabolic waste and excess is what? how much?
    Obligatory Urine 0.5 L/ day
  87. What is the maximem concentration ability of the kidneys?
    1200- 1400 mOsm/ liter
  88. What covers the body of the urinary bladder ?
    Smooth muscle called Detrusor muscle = involuntary
  89. What is the Trigone of the bladder?
    where the 2 ureters enter the bladder, near the neck
  90. Where is the Internal Urethral Sphincter Muscle found?
    The neck of the Bladder
  91. What type of muscle makes up the neck of the bladder?
    detrusor smooth fibers form the internal urethral sphincter
  92. What type of muscle fibers form the External Urethral Sphincter?
    Skeletal muscle fibers = these are under conscious/ voluntary control
  93. What nerve controls the External Urethral Sphincter?
  94. What does increased production of LH do ?
    rupture of the Grafian Follicel & release of oocyte from ovary into the fallopian tube.
  95. Granulosa cells secrete what 2 hormones?
    Estrogens & Inhibin
  96. FSH from the ____ pituitary stimulates what?
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Follicular growth
  97. Primodial follicles grow into ______ follicles.
    Graffian (mature) follicles
  98. What do increase levels of Estrogens & Inhibin do?
    IInhibits the release of FSH, this prevents the cylce from starting over @ that time.
  99. Elevated levels of estrogen stimulate what?
    Secretion og LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
  100. What does increased production of LH do ?
    rupture of the Grafian Follicel & release of oocytefrom ovary into the fallopian tube.
  101. Once the oocyte is released from the ovary what picks it up?
    Fimbraie of the fallopian tube
  102. What occurs during the Luteal phase of the Ovarian cycle?
    LH develops the Corpus Luteum from the remains of the ruptered Grafian follicle, it secretes mostly progestrone and some estrogens, which prepare the uterine lining for a possible pregnancy
  103. What is the Proliferative Phase of the uterine cycle?
    Rising estrogen levels from the growing follicle stimulate growth of the functional layer of the uterine endometruem to 4-10mm thickness
  104. What is the Secretory phase of the uterin cycle?
    • Progesterone from the corpus luteum stimulates Increased thickning of the fxn layer os the uterus to 12-18 mm
    • Blood supply increases
    • Growth of endomatrial glands and secretion of uterine milk
  105. Decline in _____ causes the menstruation phase.
  106. The Pancreas secretes what?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon (alpha cells)
    • Somatostatin (delta cells)
    • Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP cells)
  107. The Intestine secrete what?
    • Cholecystokinin
    • Gastrin
    • VIP
    • GIP
  108. The Thymus secretes what?
  109. Kidneys secrete the folowing:
    • Calcitrol
    • Thrombopoietin
    • Erythropoietin
    • Renin
    • Angiotensin/ Aldosterone
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