Test - Sterilization Disinfection c answers.txt

  1. Which of the following is NOT an important defense property associated with the skin?
    High pH
  2. How does "mucin" along mucous membranes help prevent infection?
    Surrounds the microbes blocking attachment to host cells
  3. Which of the following is NOT a condition influencing microbial control:
    The RATE of microbial DEATH
  4. Which of the following is NOT a method of action by a microbial control agent?
    Separation by filters
  5. Which of the following antimicrobial agents is used in foods and may be taken internally because they are metabolized by the body?
    Organic acids
  6. The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a liquid suspension at a given temperature may be called:
    Thermal Death Time
  7. Which of the following is NOT a principle for effective disinfection?
    Disinfectants may be used to kill any vegetative bacteria so long as it has no endospores
  8. A surface acting agent such as a soap exerts its effect upon microbes in what manner?
    soaps have no real disinfectant effect
  9. The Tetracylclines are a commonly used drug group that acts on microbes by being:
  10. The Aminoglycosides are a class of commonly used drugs that acts on microbes by being:
  11. Rifampin is a commonly used drugs that acts on microbes by being:
  12. The Penicillins are a commonly used drug group that acts on microbes by being:
  13. Why is it important to wash patient's skin with soap before using iodine to prep for surgery?
    Remove dirt and organic material from skin surface
  14. An iodophor is a(n):
    Iodine mixed with a detergent (soap)
  15. Which of the following are used as ANTISEPTIC?
    Iodophors, Rubbing alcohol, Quarternary ammonium compounds, Boric acid
  16. Before use, surgical instruments must be:
    • Devoid of organic matter and rinsed
    • Sterilized
  17. A method useful for STERILIZING FOODS such as strawberries and vegetables; or, pre-packed baby bottles, baby pacifiers and such is:
    Ionizing radiation
  18. Since it does NOT penetrate materials such as glass or liquids very well, _?_ is used primarily to sterilize surfaces and air.
    Non-ionizing radiation/UV
  19. An agent used to reduce the number of bacteria on a BED PAN would most accurately be called a(n):
  20. A chemical or process that reduces the number of microorganisms on SKIN SURFACES or something used to treat a wOUND is called a(n):
  21. Disinfection of body discharges takes longer than other materials because they usually contain:
    organic matter
  22. Although this agent is RARELY longer used in clinical settings, it is still used to test the efficiency of new chemicals by comparison under identical test conditions.
  23. Sterilization is used to eliminate the following types of microorganisms:
    Viruses, Fungi, Bacteria, Spores
  24. Boiling is NOT reliable for sterilization because it will does not:
    Kill bacterial spores
  25. Which of the following concentration of alcohol is most effective in controlling microbes?
  26. Merthiolate and mercurochrome are examples of:
    Heavy metal compounds
  27. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of phenol:
    • FALSE: Is an example of a heavy metal; acts by damaging the plasma membrane
    • TRUE: Bactericidal at high concentration; used in some throat lozenges, First antiseptic used (Lister); later found to be a carcinogen, Modified derivatives (phenolics) less toxic, Used as a comparison for new disinfectants
  28. Which of the following is NOT true of phenols?
    • FALSE: a gas form used to fumigate
    • TRUE: Acts by denaturing proteins, At low concentration is bacteriostatic, Modified derivatives are less toxic, Standard for new disinfectants
  29. What is an effective procedure for sterilizing liquids that might be damaged by autoclaving (assuming no mycoplasma/ureaplasma).
    Filtration 0.01 um
  30. Pyrogens are the dead bodies of gram negative bacteria. The FDA requires that labware be "acid" treated to remove pyrogens before any drug is prepared with these containers. What is the internal effect of a pyrogen contaminated drug?
    • It is an endotoxin
    • It causes fever and inflammation
  31. Why does 70% ethanol have better antimicrobial activity than 100% ethanol?
    Ethanol requires water to denature proteins
  32. The chemical in bleach responsible for its antimicrobial activity is:
  33. Alcohols are:
    Bactericidal; Requires water & time
  34. The best way to sterilize a used washed plastic syringe is to use:
    Ethylene oxide (gas)
  35. Which of the following MAY NOT EVER achieve complete sterility (remember the Mycoplasma)?
    Filtration at 0.001 um and US pasteurization
  36. Ethylene oxide is frequently used:
    To sterilize rubber goods and delicate surgical equipment
  37. Most antibiotics are derived from:
    Culture in which certain bacteria have grown
  38. Which one of the following best describes the term "selective toxicity" regarding drugs?
    More toxic to bacteria than host cells
  39. Which one of the following statements best describes a SEMI SYNTHETIC ANTIBIOTIC:
    Chemically modified from a natural source
  40. In the treatment of infectious diseases, COMBINATION THERAPY describes:
    Simultaneous use of multiple chemotherapeutic agents
  41. If an antimicrobial agent is "BACTERIOSTATIC" this means:
    Multiplication of microorganisms will resume upon removal of the agent
  42. SYNERGISM of antibiotics refers to:
    • [ NOA ]
    • FALSE: enhanced therapeutic results when two antibodies are given simultaneously, harmful to "target" without harming host, range of activity to different microorganisms, a type of toxicity
  43. Which of the following is NOT a mechanism by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to drugs:
    microorganisms mutate because of the drug
  44. What do cycloserine, bacitracin, penicillin, and cephalothin all have in common?
    Inhibit cell wall synthesis
  45. Who is usually credited with the discovery of penicillin?
  46. Technically, who should be known as the FATHER of penicillin?
  47. Antibiotic resistance develops in an organism as a direct result of:
    Genetic changes
  48. The presence of (this bacterial component) enables penicillin to be selectively toxic to bacterial cells and not to mammalian cells.
  49. Why don't antimicrobial drugs that act on protein synthesis affect eukaryote cells?
    Different kind of ribosomes
  50. The "D-value" on a label of disinfectant indicates:
    The time required to reduce the number of microbes on a treated area by 90% at a specified temperature
  51. Which of the following classes of antimicrobial drugs inhibits cell membrane functions?
    Polymixins and Polyenes
  52. Why are the polyenes, which are used to treat fungal infections, relatively toxic to humans?
    The cell membranes of fungal and protozoal & animal cells contain similar membrane sterols
  53. Sulfonamides as a class of antimicrobials can best be described as acting as:
    an Antimetabolite
  54. An analog of Vitamin B6 that is used to treat tuberculosis:
  55. Diseases caused by microbial products in which the microbe itself is not present in the diseased host is:
  56. Fomites are:
    Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious agents
  57. The etiology of a disease is:
    The cause of the disease
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Test - Sterilization Disinfection c answers.txt