1. Personality
    a relitively stable pattern of thinking feeling and behaving that is distinct for each individual
  2. The Five-Factor Model of Personality
    • Extroversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Conscientiousness
    • Neuroticism
    • Openness to Experience
  3. The “Big Five”
    • critical personality dimensions
    • Norman, 1963
  4. Extroversion
    how outgoing and energetic a person is—sociability, liveliness, outgoing, assertive, active
  5. Agreeableness
    how kind or sympathetic someone is—pleasant disposition, charitable, empathetic, friendly, kind, helpful, easy-going, generous
  6. Conscientiousness
    how responsible and organized someone is—reliability, hard work, punctuality, concern about doing things correctly, organized, deliberate, conforming, self-disciplined
  7. Nueroticism
    how anxious or tense someone is—nervousness, emotional instability, moodiness, irritability, tendency to worry, anxious, moody, critical, self-punishing
  8. Openess to experience
    how curious and imaginative someone is—imagination, intelligence, curiosity, aesthetic sensitivity, artistic, open to new experiences
  9. Methods to assess personality
    • Self report measures
    • Projective Test
  10. self report measures
    • individuals answer questions about themselves
    • Yes/No True/False or Always/Never Not a problem/Always a problem
  11. MMPI-@
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2
    • most common self report measure
    • 550-567 T/F
  12. Projective Test
    Test that use unstructured or ambiguous stimuli to alllow a person's personality to emerge.
  13. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • Most popular of the projective test
    • 10 symmetrical blots
  14. Sigmund FREUD (1856-1839)
    Psychodynamic Approach
  15. Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality

    • behavior is a result of dynamic underlying psychic processes
    • both conscious and unconscious
  16. Unconscious

    • a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
    • "we are largely unaware of what is going on in the deep dark unconscious"
  17. Drives

    • biological drives play a key role (especially drives for sex)
    • drives often confllict with one another
    • desire to have sex with mother but doesnt want to be rejected by father
  18. Free Association
    • ask that a person completely relaxes and says whatever comes to mind:
    • Uncensored, unablashed, regardless of how trivial or controversial or silly
  19. Mind as divided into 3 main structures

    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  20. Id
    • unconscious, irrational source of primitive impulses
    • very unrealistic, immature thinking
    • anything goes
    • dreams-thinking in dreams disguises or unacceptable Id impulses
    • Jailicia
  21. Pleasure Principle

    part of Id
    urge for immediate gratification, regardless if consequences or external realities
  22. Ego
    largely conscious, realistic aspect of personality

    • operates on the Reality Principle
    • acts to control Id's impulses
    • mediator between the Id and the real and the real world
    • finds acceptable ways to gratify Id's impulses.
  23. Reality Principle
    sees world as it is not as we wish it was
  24. Superego
    • unconscious, irrational, based on rules and prohibition we have internalized from interactions with parents and other authority figures
    • conscience
    • operates by the Idealistic Principle
  25. Idealistic Principle
    what we SHOULD do according to internalized authority figures/society
  26. Why we act the way we do?
    How we act is a reflection of how well the person copes with and resolves conflicts among the Id Ego and Superego.
  27. Defense Mechanisms
    • the Ego's way of protecting itself from unacceptable thoughts and impulses
    • and the anxiety that stems from conflicting urges and prohibitions of the Id and Superego
  28. denial

    def. mech
    mind defends itself from thinking about unpleasant unwanted or threatening situations
  29. repression

    defense mech.
    • internal counterpart to denial
    • we unknowingly exclude from consciousness any unacceptable and potentially dangerous impulses
    • ex: molestation as a child repressed-expressed as fear of men
  30. Projection

    defense mech.
    leads us to attribute our own unacceptable and possibly dangerous thoughts/impulses to another person
  31. Displacement

    defense mech.
    redirect an impulse away from the person who prompts it toward another person who is a safe substitute
  32. Sublimation

    defense mech.
    redirect socially unacceptable impulses, transforming energy from them into acceptable and even admirable behavior
  33. Reaction Formation

    defense mech.
    • transform unacceptable thought or impulse into its opposite
    • ex: inwardly jealous of coworkers new car, but your conscious report is that the car is superficial, ugly, pure waste of money
  34. Rationalization
    • avoid threatening thoughts by replacing them with non threatening ones
    • JOY
    • ex: providing justification. the wife of the compulsive gambler brags to friends how hard her husband works to support the family
  35. Regression
    • revert to thinking and behavior in ways that are characteristic of an earlier stage of socioemotional development to ward off anxiety or pain that we are experiencing in present stage
    • Zoe
  36. Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory of Development
    • gender and sexuality based development starts at birth and continues through adulthood. A set of personality characteristics is associated with each stage
    • if child is unable to resolve issues of current stage they become fixated, unable to progress and show characteristics of the stage in adulthood
  37. Oral Stage
    • nourishment and pleasure from oral activity;
    • focus on mouth
    • 0-2 yrs
  38. Anal Stage
    • derive pleasure from urination and pooping
    • 2-4 yrs
  39. Phallic Stage
    • Figure out stimulation of genitals feels good
    • overly preoccupied with self
    • vain and arrogant
    • unrealistic self-confidence and self-absorption
    • 4-6yrs - middle childhood
  40. Latency Stage
    • sexual sublimation and repression of complexes
    • 6-11yrs/middle childhood
  41. Genital Stage
    • traditional sex roles and heterosexual orientation
    • 11-ish
    • adolescence through adulthood
  42. Oedipal Complex
    boys desire their mother and worry about wrath of their fathers
  43. Electra Complex
    girls may desire their father and worry about wrath of their mothers
  44. Individual Psychology of Adler

    • actions shaped by expectation for future
    • strive for superiority unless have inferiority complex
  45. Analytical Psychology of Carl Jung

    • rejected Freud's theory that basis of personality is fueled by sexual drives and aggression
    • Theorized about the personal and collective unconscious
    • memories of distant ancestors
    • Archetypes
  46. Humanism

    Humanistic Approach
    • emphasizes person's potential for growth and change and inherent goodness
    • Believes that each person shapes own destiny, with a heavy focus on the conscious level
    • ex: my biological dad
  47. Carl Rogers
    • person centered approach
    • Emphasizes the self and person's perception of the self
    • self concept
    • person has power within self to change themselves and be what they can be
    • Unconditional Positive regard
  48. self concept

    carl rogers
    • an ideal self
    • the closer the match between two better adjusted the person is
    • what you think about yourself
  49. Unconditional Positive regard
    • the idea that a child's development was greatly assited by the belief that they were loved "no matter what"
    • not advocating permissive parenting or spoiling the child, but rather allowing the child to develop "fully" while learning rules of acceptable behavior
  50. Holistic Dynamic Theory
    Abraham Maslow
    Self- actualization as highest need in hierarchy
  51. Cognitive Behavioral Approach
    studies how people think and behave and how the two interact
  52. Skinner's Theory
    personalities differ because different environmental contingencies and schedule of reinforcement.
  53. Albert Bandura
    • reciprocal determinism
    • interaction among personal factors environmental events behavioral factors
  54. Personal Control
    • our sense of control over our live impacts the decision we make and the feelings we have
    • tied in closely with motivation
  55. Self-Serving Bias
    Humans tend to perceive of themselves favorably especially in Western society
  56. External Locus of Control
    the perception that chance/luck or some outside force determines your fate
  57. Internal Locus of Control
    • the perception that to a great extent you control your own destiny
    • ex: my biological dad
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