social psych

  1. social psychology
    study of how the presence of others affects each person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, even if presence is only imagined
  2. Social cognition
    refers to thoughts and beliefs we have about ourselves and about others—largely, based on how we perceive and interpret information we directly observe or learn from other people
  3. Attitudes
    • learned, stable, and relatively enduring evaluation of a
    • person, object, or idea that can affect a person’s behavior
  4. attitude strength
    • stronger
    • attitudes are more clearly tied to behavior
  5. amount of info and experience supporting the attitude
    attitudes based on more information and experience are more predictive of behavior
  6. attitude specificity
    more highly specific attitudes are more clearly tied to behavior
  7. situational factors
    • cirmstances influence expression of attitudes
    • potential consequences or what is important at a particulaar time
  8. factors that influence likelihood that attitudes shown in behavior
    • attitude strength
    • amount of info and experience supporting the attitude
    • attitude specificty
    • situational factors
  9. functions of attitudes
    • help us get what we want and avoid what we dont want
    • help us minimize internal conflicts and anxieties
    • help us understand and integrate complex sources of info
    • reflect our deeply held values
  10. Formation of attitudes
    • operant conditioning
    • observational learning
  11. operant conditioning
    attitudes are punished or reinforced by the environment
  12. observational learning
    observe attitudes being voiced and acted upon by important adults and other children in the environment
  13. Cognitive consistency
    We are motivated to have match between thoughts and behaviors
  14. cognitive dissonance
    • disquieting perception of mismatch between attitudes and behavior. In order to achieve cognitive consistency, they justified their effort
    • rationalized thei expendenture of energy by cinvincing themselves that it was not that boring
  15. Cognitive dissonance
    changed their attitude to make sense of their own behavior
  16. Attribution
    • the process of assigning causes to events or behaviors
    • mental explanation tat identifies the causes of a persons behavior
  17. General types of attributions
    • Peronal or dispositional
    • Situational
  18. Attribution Hueristics
    • Social Desirability
    • Fundamental Attribution Error
    • Actor-Observer Effect
    • Self-serving Biases
    • Self Handicapping
  19. Social Desirabilty
    when making attribution about another person's personality UNDESERVEDLY heavy weight to SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE behavior
  20. Fundamental Attribution Error
    • we OVEREMPHASIZE INTERNAL CAUSES and PERSONAL RESPONSABILTY and underemphasize external causes and situational influences
    • when observing other peoples behavior
  21. Actor Obeserver Effect
    we attribute actions of others as due to STABLE DISPOSITONAL CHARACTERISTICS but attribute our OWN action to MOMENTARY SITUATIONAL FACTORS
  22. Self Serving Bias
    overconfidence—a pattern of attributions such that we tend to take credit for our successes and blame external factors for our failures
  23. Sel-Handicapping
    people take actions to sabotage their own performance so they will have excuses in case they fail to perform satisfactorily. When one creates a situation in which they CANNOT perform well (when unsure of ability) so that if they fail, they can blame it on situation—NOT themselves or their own effort/ability
  24. Impression Formation
    the process of forming an opinion about another person based on direct and indirect information
  25. First impressions
    are powerful—via schemas/primacy effect. In another experiment by Asch, people who heard positive traits first formed a more positive impression of person than people who heard negative traits first.
  26. Primacy Effect
    Influence of first impressions on subsequent impressions is called the
  27. Confirmation Bias
    we have a tendency to seek information that confirms our existing beliefs rather than information that refutes our beliefs (politicians)
  28. Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    what we believe to be true becomes true or is perceived to have come true.
  29. Group
    A group is a collection of individuals who interact with each other, usually to work or promote social relationships.
  30. conformity
    The process by which an individual shapes behavior to make it consistent with group norms and expectations
  31. Asch
    Line expirament 1950's
  32. Social Inhibition
    The presence of others can also have a detrimental effect on individual performance
  33. social facilitation
    presence of others can positively influence performance of individual
  34. Factors that influence conformity
    • Group size
    • Cohesiveness
    • Gender—both
    • Social Status
    • Culture—People
    • Appearance of unanimity
  35. Compliance
    "Going along” with the requests of others.
  36. Common tecniques for elicit Compliance
    • Justification
    • Reciprocity
    • Low-ball technique
    • foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    • door in the face phenomenon
    • that's not all technique
    • hard-to-get technique
  37. Obedience
    compliance towiards authority figures, to those who have an obvious or inferred authority over you
  38. Stanley Milgram's
    Shock learning experiment
  39. Prosocial Behavior
    societally approved actions that offer some benefit to society or individual members
  40. altruism
    • helping behaviors performed voluntarily with no anticipation of reward or recognition
    • feeling one gets from behavior is the reinforcer
  41. Kitty genovese incident
    repeately attacked in queens
  42. Bystander effect
    • the phenomenon that occurs when an increasing number of people present leads to decreasing probabilty that any single observer will help
    • diffusion of responsibility
  43. Latane and darley
    smoke experiment
  44. factors that influence helping behaviors
    • characteristics of the victim
    • characteristics of the situation
    • characteristics of the bystander
  45. Antisocial Behavior
    any behavior that is harmful to society or members of society
  46. Aggression
    as behavior intended to cause harm or injury to another person
  47. Hostile
    cause harm because of emotional outbursts caused by pain or distress of some kind
  48. expression of aggression
    • hostile
    • instrumental
  49. instrumental
    injury or harm is caused as a byproduct of trying to get something of value
  50. Causes for aggression
    • Evolutionary factors
    • Biological factors
    • Social factors
  51. Biological Factors
    • Hereditary
    • Hormones
    • Physical States
  52. Social Factors
    • Role Models
    • Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Cultural Norm
    • Gender Socialization
    • Context
Card Set
social psych
social psych