Astronomy 204 Final

  1. What happened in 50 AD as far as rockets?
    Hero of Alexandria developed devices with steam propulsion, stated by his book Pneumatica
  2. When and where was the first rocket? What was it used for?
    3rd Century BC, China, bamboo tubes filled with slatpeter, sulphur, and charcoal for cermovial fires in religious festivals
  3. How were they used against the mongols?
    1232; Fire arrows, battle of Kai-fung fu; Chinese developed military rockets
  4. Who created the first rocket in US? When? How was it used?
    Sir William Congreve, 1804, Congreve Rocket, used in the Revolutionary war
  5. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
    FAther of theoretical aeronautics; high school teacher; first to calculate escape velocity that would require a multi state liquid fuel rocket; designed wind tunnels, space stations, space suits, air locks, colonies in space
  6. Robert Goddard
    scientist and physics professor; 1926 launched first liquid fuel rocket; continued development into 30's; Goddard space center
  7. Hermann Oberth
    "The Rocket into Interplanetary Space" 1929; teacher of von Braun
  8. Werner Von Braun
    greatest rocket engineer of 20th cen; Headed german rocket program in WW2 at Peenekmunde; Moved to US in operation paperclip; mastermind of US space program through lunar landings
  9. Yuri Gagarin
    first human in space in 1961 on Vostok 1
  10. Mercury Program
    1959-1963; Sheppard, Grissom into space; 62 John glenn orbited Earth three times
  11. Gemini Program
    • 62-66; 10 manned flights 65-66; extravehicular ectivity;14 day flight, relative work; fuel cells, navigation and flight controls; 66 G 8Armstrong and Scott emergency landing
    • 66- G12 Buzz Aldrin 5hr eva
  12. Apollo Missions
    1966-75; 1968/ Apollo 8, launched early to beat soviets; 1969/ Apollo 11; 1970/ Apollo 13
  13. Why were Apollo and Mars Programs cut short?
    Vietnam War
  14. What was a gesture of international peace and end to space exploration?
    Skylab in 1973
  15. Manned vs probe exploration Arguments
    advancement of science, advancement of technological development; advancement of industry, advancement of business opportunity, high ground, national pride, planetary insurance, new world, moral equivalet of war, overpopulation
  16. Who named the canals and when?
    Schiaparelli in 1877
  17. Who was a major observer of Mars and created the crazy persona of Mars?
    Percival Lowell
  18. Viking program
    1975; sent to observe Mars' surface and search for life; one did not make it to surface
  19. Mariner Program
    launched between 1963 to 73; total of 10, three were lost; sent to investigate Mars, Venus, and Mercury;
  20. Mars Pathfinder
    launched in 96, landed in 1997; consisted of a lander renamed after Carl Sagan and a rover named Sojourner; measured atmostpheric data
  21. Other Mars landers/rovers
    Opportunity and Spirit; Opportunity lives; Phoenix Lander in poles and found frozen h20; curiosity
  22. What is a geostationary orbit? What uses are of it now and what uses in the future?
    a satellite in orbit at Earth's equator; appears to be motionless and will stay in the same place in Earth's vision; used for weather and communication satelites; could be used
  23. Nikilai Kardashev
    Three types of civilizations
  24. Type 1
    • A Type I Civilization is one that has
    • mastered all forms of terrestrial energy.
    • In terms of territory, it takes responsibility for stewardship of all
    • the Earth. In terms of exploration, it
    • sends out probes beyond Earth to near space.
  25. Type 2
    • A Type II Civilization accepts responsibility
    • for stewardship of the Solar System. The
    • human community has spread into space, mining the asteroids, living on space
    • stations and several planetary surfaces.
    • In terms of exploration, Type II civilizations are sending manned and
    • unmanned probes beyond the solar system to nearby star systems.
  26. Type 3
    • Type III Civilizations are interstellar in
    • character, moving easily between star systems.
    • Entire star systems are colonized in one movement. They are evolving into a Galactic Civilization. In terms of exploration, manned and unmanned
    • probes are sent outside the Milky Way Galaxy.
  27. Freeman Dyson
    3 broad areas of technological advance that will determine the character of 21st century
  28. computers
    •Computers Hardware and Software.

    •Miniaturization. Nanotechnology.

    •Robotics, Artificial Intelligence,

    • •Cyberspace, Virtual Reality, Artificial
    • Life.
  29. Genetics and Bioengineering
    • •Reproductive technologies, organ transplants,
    • human organs grown in animals, artificial organs. Genetic markers for defects and
    • diseases.

    • •New forms of plant and animal life designed
    • for the needs of humans.

    • •Re-engineered humans developed to suit
    • particular environments. Bio-designed
    • specialization of humans for specific needs.
  30. Space Exploration
    • •Fully exploited opportunities of Low Earth
    • Orbit for Earth (environmental) needs.

    •Lunar Development, scientific primarily.

    • •Mars Colonization, major (500 year)
    • project.

    •Mining the Asteroids

    • •Exploration and development of the outer
    • solar system.
  31. Drake Equation
    • how many civilizations exist in the galaxy with whom we could communicate with? Numer of civilizations =
    • Nhp*flife*f civ* f now
  32. How many could we make contact with?
    Pessimistic 10s; optimistic 1000s
  33. Fermi's paradox
    • options:
    • 1. we are unique, the first part of universe to attain self aweareness
    • 2. we will never explore the stars because it is impossible or we will destroy ourselves
    • 3. we are the galaxy's rookies
  34. What does it take for a statement to be scientifically meaningful?
    a statement must be testable and rendered false
  35. What were the two monuments in Chaco Canyon that were acheoastronomy?
    Super Nova Petrograph (positive), Fajada Butte
  36. Whould it make sense to send a rocket to Aristotle's universe?
    No because his universe was everything.
  37. when was the fist heliocentric model first proposed? was it accepted or discarded and why?
    Aristarchus in ancient Greece and was discarded because of the lack of parallax to prove his theory
  38. Thales
    founder of greek science; proposed model of universe withouth mythology; basic nature of all things is water
  39. Anaximander
    student of thales; earth floats in empty space surrounded by celstial sphere
  40. Pythagoras
    first to teach that earh is a sphere
  41. Plato
    astronomical motions must therefore be perfect; circular spheres
  42. Eudoxus
    first system of planetary motions explained by embedding the planets in rotating spheres
  43. Aristotle
    his theory dominated western europe because of Alexander the great
  44. Aristarchus
    first to state a helio centric; when the half moon was present it formed a right triangle and the ratios could be used in trigonometry
  45. eratosthenes
    measured circumfrance of earth by finding constellations at different parts of the sky in different citites
  46. Copernicus
    similar to current current but with fixed stars, no prime mover
  47. Tycho Brahe
    senstive data and had lots of money and geocentric model; KEPLAR
  48. Keplar
    laws: planets rotate in ellipse
  49. Galileo
    moon has craters and landscape, venus had phases, jupiter has four moons, milky way has thousands of stars, satrun has handles, sun has dark spots
  50. Herschel
    nebulae, double stars, found urunus while looking for nebulae, star counts, movement of stars around solar system; shape of milky way
  51. Shapley curtis debate
    1920- dimensions of the milkey way, nature of spiral nebulae, expansion of universe (stativ vs expanding, accelerating?) shapley won
  52. meansured andromeda galaxy
    hubble used cepheid variables as standard candles
  53. the detection of an ecoplanet through careful measurement of the motion of the star agains the backgroud star is known as
  54. if an object in space is in the neighborhood of our moon we can measure its distance from us using
  55. if an object in space is 5 lightyears away we can measure its distance from us using
    parallax or transit
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Astronomy 204 Final
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