ISDS Final : Technology in action

  1. Who owns the Internet?
    • Individuals
    • Universities
    • Government agencies
    • Private companies
  2. Who manages the Internet?
    • Nonprofit organizations
    • User groups
  3. Who pays for the Internet?
    • U.S. taxpayers
    • Businesses
    • Universities
    • Other countries
  4. Types of servers
    • Web servers
    • Host Web pages
    • Commerce servers
    • Enable the purchase of goods and services over the Web
    • File servers
    • Provide remote storage space for files that users can download
  5. Circuit Switching
    • Dedicated connection between two points
    • Remains active until the transmission is terminated
    • Used in telephone communications
    • Inefficient for computers
  6. Packet Switching
    • Data is broken into small units (packets)
    • Packets are sent over various routes to their destination
    • Packets are reassembled by the receiving computer
  7. Packets contain:
    • Destination/source addresses
    • Reassembling instructions
    • Data
  8. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • Prepares data for transmission
    • Provides error checking
    • Enables resending lost data
  9. Internet Protocol (IP)
    Responsible for sending data from one computer to another
  10. IP Address
    Unique number that identifies each device connected to the Internet
  11. Classless interdomain routing (CIDR)
    • Allows a single IP address to represent several unique addresses
    • Uses a network prefix (slash and number)
    • Identifies how many bits in the IP address are unique identifiers
  12. Domain Names
    • Names that take the place of an IP address
    • Sample domain name:
  13. Domain Name System Servers
    Internet servers that translate domain names into IP addresses
  14. HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
    • Tags that describe the formatting and layout of a Web page
    • Not programming languages, but sets of rules for specifying how a browser should display text
  15. Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML)
    • Successor to HTML
    • Much more stringent rules regarding tagging
  16. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
    • Designed for information exchange
    • Can be used to create your own markup language
    • Used in e-commerce transactions
    • Custom packages for specific communities
    • MathML, Wireless Markup Language (WML)
  17. Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
    Browsers request that a program file executes (runs)
  18. Dynamic HTML
    • A combination of technologies
    • Cascading style sheets
    • JavaScript
    • Allows a Web page to change in response to user action
    • Brings special effects to otherwise static Web pages
  19. Cascading Style Sheets
    • Statements that define in a single location how to display HTML/XHTML elements
    • Enable a Web developer to define a style for each HTML/XHTML element
    • The rule can be applied to as many elements on as many Web pages as needed Speeds up global changes
  20. Document Object Model
    • Organizes the objects and elements of a Web page
    • Defines every item on a Web page as an object
    • Developers can easily change the properties of these objects
  21. Client-Side Applications
    Programs that run on a client computer with no interaction with the server
  22. E-mail security
    • Encryption
    • Private-key encryption
    • Public-key encryption
    • Secure data transmission software
    • SafeMessage
  23. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    • Allows inexpensive or free long-distance phone calls over the Internet
    • Some cell phones are VoIP enabled
    • Uses packet switching
  24. Cloud Computing
    • Uses Internet to deliver business services online
    • Used by many Web 2.0 applications (blogs, wikis, social networks) and Web-based e-mail
    • Requires a large investment of hardware, software, and programming talent
Card Set
ISDS Final : Technology in action
ISDS Final cards on Technology in Action