1. The Core components of the Justice systm ine Texas include:
    • Law enforcement
    • Law adjudication-Court system
    • Criminal Corrections
    • A.G.-Attorney General
  2. A.G.-Attorney General
    • Defends the law and the constitution of the state of Texas
    • Represents the state in litigation
    • Approves public bond issues
  3. Civil law
    can be defined as all disputes between 2 or more private parties; these include individuals, corporations, or government agencies
  4. Criminal law-
    can be defined as crimes against the state
  5. Administrative law
    this involves setting and enforcing rules and regulations by government agencies other than the legislature
  6. Justice of the Peace Courts
    • 254 Counties and 827 Justices of the Peace
    • Limited original jurisdiction restricted to only class ”C” misdemeanor criminal cases
  7. Municipal Courts
    have original jurisdiction in cases where the fine is $2000 or less, fire , zoning, public health, or sanitation; they also have concurrent jurisdiction which means that 2 types of courts have the authority to try the same case; also, municipal judges may issue a search warrant; these courts have no jurisdiction in most civil cases except in cases involving dangerous dogs
  8. Constitutional County Courts
    there are 254 county courts in Texas and there is one county judge over each court; these courts hear probate cases (cases related to wills) and they have original jurisdiction over class “A” and class “B” misdemeanor cases
  9. District Courts
    are trial courts of general jurisdiction; they have original jurisdiction in all felony criminal cases, divorce cases, cases involving titles of land, election contest cases and cases where the amount is not more than $200
  10. Texas Courts of Appeals
    are called intermediate courts and they have appellate jurisdiction over both civil and criminal cases appealed from the district and local courts; there are 3 justices including a presiding chief justice and the judges of the Texas court of appeals serve a term of 6years
  11. Supreme Courts (the court of criminal appeals)
    composed of 9 members, 1 presiding judge and 8 judges and it holds it sessions throughout the year in Austin; the court has discretionary review power meaning that the court has the power to hear the case or not if it so chooses. The one exception to this rule is a case involving capital punishment
  12. Texas Supreme Court
    • has the final appellate jurisdiction in all civil and juvenile cases; this court also has 1 presiding judge and 8 judges; there are other administrative duties that the court undertakes
    • Makes the rules of practice and procedure for civil and juvenile cases Also establishes the rules of administration for the Texas judicial system and rules of operation for the Texas Bar Association
  13. Appellate Court level
    The judges must be licensed to practice law for at least 10 years, be citizens of both the US and Texas, and be 35 years old.
  14. District Judges
    must be licensed to practice law for at least 4 years, be a resident of that judicial district for at least 2 years, and be a citizen of the state
  15. County Courts and Probate Courts
    all judges are required to be licensed to practice law and be at least 25 years old
  16. requirements all judges in Texas have to
    complete training courses in court administration, trial procedure, and evidence
  17. Characteristics of the Judiciary
    • Most of the judges in Texas are men (72%)
    • A greater percentage are Caucasian ( 83%)
    • Women and minority groups are underrepresented
    • African American have very low representation
    • The median age of all judges ranges from 49-55
    • The judicial bench is increasingly Republican
  18. judges Selection and Terms of Office
    • All judges in Texas are elected
    • Municipal judges serve a term of 2 years
    • District judges, county level judges, justices of the peace serve a term of 4 years
    • Appellate judges serve a term of 6 years
  19. There are 3 main distinct components of the justice system in Texas
    • Law enforcement and criminal prosecution
    • Criminal trial and appeals
    • Correction
  20. Criminal Trial Procedure
    The last time the legislature changed in Texas was 1965; the Texas code of criminal procedure was changed at this time; the cornerstone of the Texas code of criminal procedure can be found in article 1.05 of the criminal code which affirms the basic rights of the accused, including the right to a speedy, public trial by an impartial jury, and the right to not to be compelled to incriminate oneself
  21. Criminal Trial Procedure stage1
    the prosecuting attorney, either the DA or the ADA, prepares a formal written accusation charging a person for a specific crime
  22. Criminal Trial Procedure stage2
    a grand jury decides if enough evidence exists for a trial
  23. Criminal Trial Procedure stage3
    If indicted, the accused can request release from custody for the duration of the trial
  24. Criminal Trial Procedure stage4
    • The accused may be released on his or her own recognition, a promise to appear for the trial
    • Granted only if the crime was not of a violent nature
  25. Criminal Trial Procedure stage5
    in cases when the defendant is considered a flight risk but not a threat to the community) the court may grant a release on bail, requiring the accused to surrender a specific sum of cash that would be seized by the court if the defendant fleas
  26. Criminal Trial Procedure stage6
    IF the case goes to trial the accused is asked to enter a plea of guilty, not guilty or no contest; the last is like a no guilty plea but it avoids a trial and the case proceeds to the penalty phase
  27. Criminal Trial Procedure stage7
    the case is then presented to 12 member jury called for jury duty
  28. Criminal Trial Procedure stage8
    the primary distinction in cri me severity is between misdemeanor and felonies a misdemeanor is a relatively minor, non violent crime that involves the property of only limited value, minor drug possessions or other prohibited acts that do not involve bodily injury; these cases are generally heard by local trial courts such as the municipal courts, county courts, or justice of the peace courts; Felonies on the other hand are demeaned to pose a much more serious threat to the society, theft or burglary involving property of substantial value, assault, and distribution of controlled substances are all felonies; both misdemeanors and felonies are rated according to severity, misdemeanors are graded in classes “A”, “B”, and “C” while felonies are graded in degrees 1st, 2nd, and 3rd ; felony grades also include capital and state jail felonies, crimes committed while in jail
  29. Policy Making Process
    • agenda setting
    • formulation and adoption
    • implementation
    • evaluate and terminate
  30. Major policy areas
    • domestic
    • defense
    • foreign
  31. Goals of Economic Policy
    • stable prices-- inflation occurs when there is sharp increase in the prices of goods and services reducing the value of money.
    • full employment- when the unemployment rate is 4% or less it is considered to be
    • full employment
    • growth- GNP=value of goods + services over \1 year. When the GNP is 4% or more it is a flourishing economy.
  32. International Economic Policy
    • The IMF(inter nation monetary fund) aims at promoting international cooperation ,
    • currency stability, and international trade
    • NAFTA(north american free trade agreement) US Mexico and Canada est.
  33. Issues in Foreign Policies
    • Nuclear proliferation
    • -terrorism
    • -border security
    • -disarmament
    • -economic policy
    • -environmental issues
  34. economic domensions of texas political culture
    • infenses on euntripurnurship
    • wealth
    • aversion to taxes
    • a provision of government services especially for the poor
  35. political culture and its importance
    • compairtivly low level of state services maintained by a general progressive tax
    • general anti union work enviroment
    • limited and enviromental regulation
    • culutraly conservitive social policy in areas such as education, relgion, and civil rights
  36. 3 main idealogies of texas political culture
    • economic liberlism
    • social conservatism
    • populism
    • political culture
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