Chp. 50

  1. Hormone
    Substances secreted by cells that act to regulate the activity of other cells in the body
  2. Endocrine Glands
    Ductless organs that secrete hormones either into the bloodstream of the fluid around cells
  3. Endocrine System
    The endocrine glands and specialized cells that secrete hormones
  4. Exocrine Glands
    Secrete Substances through ducts (tube-like structures)
  5. Amino Acid-based Hormones
    Hormones made of amino acids
  6. Steroid Hormones
    Lipid hormones that the body maked from cholesterol
  7. Target Cells
    Specific cells which a hormone travels to produce a specific effect
  8. Receptors
    Proteins that bind specific signal molecules that cause the cell to respond
  9. Second Messanger
    A molecule that initiates changes inside a cell in response to the binding of a specific substance to a receptor on the outside of a cell
  10. Neuropeptides
    Hormones secreted by the nervous system
  11. Prostaglandins
    Modified fatty acids that are secreted by most cells
  12. Hypothalamus
    The area of the brain that coordinates many activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
  13. Pituitary Glands
    Suspended from the hypothalamus by a short stalk
  14. Thyroid Gland
    Located near the lower part of the larynx
  15. Adrenal Gland
    Located above each kidney
  16. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
    Two amino-based hormones
  17. Cortisol
    Promotes the production of glucosefrom proteins making usable energy available to cells
  18. Gonads
    The ovaries in females and the testes in males
  19. Puberty
    The adolescent stage during which the sex organs mature and secondary sex characteristics
  20. Luteinizing Hormone & Follicel-stimulating Hormone
    Stimulate secretion of sex hormones from the gonads
  21. Estrogen & Progesterone
    In females they cause the monthly release of an egg by an ovary and buildup of the uterine lining
  22. Androgens Testosterone
    An androgen that regulates male secondary sex characteristics
  23. Insulin
    Lowers the bloos sugar level by stimulating body cells, especially muscles, to store glucose or use it for energy
  24. Diabetes Mellitus
    A condition in which cells are unable to obtain glucose, resulting in abnormally high blood glucose concentrations
  25. Melatonin
    Concentrations increase sharply at night and decrease dramatically during the day
  26. Negative Feedback
    The final step in a series of events inhibits the initial signal in the series
  27. Positive Feedback
    Release of an initial hormone stimulates releaseor production of other hormones or substances, which stimulate further release of the initial hormone
Card Set
Chp. 50
Endocrine System